GPR98 mutations cause Usher syndrome type 2 in males
ABSTRACT Mutations in the large GPR98 gene underlie Usher syndrome type 2C (USH2C), and all patients described to date have been female. It was speculated that GPR98 mutations cause a more severe, and eventually lethal, phenotype in males. We describe for the first time two male patients with USH2 with novel GPR98 mutations. Clinical characterization of a male patient and his affected sister revealed a typical USH2 phenotype in both. GPR98 may have been excluded from systematic investigation in previous studies, and the proportion of patients with USH2C probably underestimated. GPR98 should be considered in patients with USH2 of both sexes.
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ABSTRACT: Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are the second largest of the five GPCR families and are essential for a wide variety of physiological processes. Zebrafish have proven to be a very effective model for studying the biological functions of aGPCRs in both developmental and adult contexts. However, aGPCR repertoires have not been defined in any fish species, nor are aGPCR expression profiles in adult tissues known. Additionally, the expression profiles of the aGPCR family have never been extensively characterized over a developmental time-course in any species. Here, we report that there are at least 59 aGPCRs in zebrafish that represent homologs of 24 of the 33 aGPCRs found in humans; compared to humans, zebrafish lack clear homologs of GPR110, GPR111, GPR114, GPR115, GPR116, EMR1, EMR2, EMR3, and EMR4. We find that several aGPCRs in zebrafish have multiple paralogs, in line with the teleost-specific genome duplication. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that most zebrafish aGPCRs cluster closely with their mammalian homologs, with the exception of three zebrafish-specific expansion events in Groups II, VI, and VIII. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we have defined the expression profiles of 59 zebrafish aGPCRs at 12 developmental time points and 10 adult tissues representing every major organ system. Importantly, expression profiles of zebrafish aGPCRs in adult tissues are similar to those previously reported in mouse, rat, and human, underscoring the evolutionary conservation of this family, and therefore the utility of the zebrafish for studying aGPCR biology. Our results support the notion that zebrafish are a potentially useful model to study the biology of aGPCRs from a functional perspective. The zebrafish aGPCR repertoire, classification, and nomenclature, together with their expression profiles during development and in adult tissues, provides a crucial foundation for elucidating aGPCR functions and pursuing aGPCRs as therapeutic targets.BMC Genomics 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1296-8 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate present options for the indication of cochlear implants (CI) and new forms of treatment for head and neck cancer, melanomas and basal cell carcinomas, with emphasis on future perspectives. A literature search was performed in the PubMed database. Search parameters were "personalized medicine", "individualized medicine" and "molecular medicine". Personalized medicine based on molecular-genetic evaluation of functional proteins such as otoferlin, connexin 26 and KCNQ4 or the Usher gene is becoming increasingly important for the indication of CI in the context of infant deafness. Determination of HER2/EGFR mutations in the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene may be an important prognostic parameter for therapeutic decisions in head and neck cancer patients. In basal cell carcinoma therapy, mutations in the Hedgehog (PCTH1) and Smoothened (SMO) pathways strongly influence the indication of therapeutic Hedgehog inhibition, e.g. using small molecules. Analyses of c-Kit receptor, BRAF-600E and NRAS mutations are required for specific molecular therapy of metastasizing melanomas. The significant advances in the field of specific molecular therapy are best illustrated by the availability of the first gene therapeutic procedures for treatment of RPE65-induced infantile retinal degradation. The aim of personalized molecular medicine is to identify patients who will respond particularly positively or negatively (e.g. in terms of adverse side effects) to a therapy using the methods of molecular medicine. This should allow a specific therapy to be successfully applied or preclude its indication in order to avoid serious adverse side effects. This approach serves to stratify patients for adequate treatment.HNO 06/2014; 62(7). DOI:10.1007/s00106-014-2859-8 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As noted in the separate introduction to this special topic section, episodic and electrical disorders can appear quite different clinically and yet share many overlapping features, including attack precipitants, therapeutic responses, natural history, and the types of genes that cause many of the genetic forms (i.e., ion channel genes). Thus, as we mapped and attempted to clone genes causing other episodic disorders, ion channels were always outstanding candidates when they mapped to the critical region of linkage in such a family. However, some of these disorders do not result from mutations in channels. This realization has opened up large and exciting new areas for the pathogenesis of these disorders. In some cases, the mutations occur in genes of unknown function or without understanding of molecular pathogenesis. Recently, emerging insights into a fascinating group of episodic movement disorders, the paroxysmal dyskinesias, and study of the causative genes and proteins are leading to the emerging concept of episodic electric disorders resulting from synaptic dysfunction. Much work remains to be done, but the field is evolving rapidly. As it does, we have come to realize that the molecular pathogenesis of electrical and episodic disorders is more complex than a scenario in which such disorders are simply due to mutations in the primary determinants of membrane excitability (channels). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology Volume 77 is February 10, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Physiology 10/2014; 77(1). DOI:10.1146/annurev-physiol-021014-071814 · 14.70 Impact Factor