Mutations in the leucine-rich-repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been identified in families with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (ADPD), the most common of which is the p.G2019S substitution that has been found at varying frequencies worldwide. Because of the size of the LRRK2 gene, few studies have analysed the entire gene in large series of ADPD families.
We performed extensive mutation analyses of all 51 coding exons of the LRRK2 gene in index cases from 226 Parkinson's disease families compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance, mostly from France (n = 182) and North Africa (n = 14).
We found 79 sequence variants, 29 of which were novel. Eight potentially or proven pathogenic mutations were found in 22 probands (9.7%). There were four novel amino acid substitutions that are potentially pathogenic (p.S52F, p.N363S, p.I810V, p.R1325Q) and two novel variants, p.H1216R and p.T1410M, that are probably not causative. The common p.G2019S mutation was identified in 13 probands (5.8%) including six from North Africa (43%). The known heterozygous p.R1441H and p.I1371V mutations were found in two probands each, and the p.E334K variant was identified in one single patient. Most potentially or proven pathogenic mutations were located in the functional domains of the Lrrk2 protein.
This study leads us to conclude that LRRK2 mutations are a common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease in Europe and North Africa.
"This could somehow explain why we (data not shown) and others , , , , , ,  observe additional bands in Western blot analyses, which could fit to the calculated size of a truncated LRRK2 isoform. Considering the complex architecture of the LRRK2 protein, implying that Lrrk2 is involved in more than one cellular process , we found that the endogenous exons 41, 42 and 43 cover the complete end of the MAPKKK domain . Splicing that introduces an alternative exon 42a will lead to an early truncation of the protein (due to its included stop codons, and may seriously influence its enzymatic activity (due to lack of the c-terminal part of the kinase domain). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Missense mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are linked to autosomal dominant forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). In order to get insights into the physiological role of Lrrk2, we examined the distribution of Lrrk2 mRNA and different splice variants in the developing murine embryo and the adult brain of Mus musculus. To analyse if the Lrrk2-paralog, Lrrk1, may have redundant functions in PD-development, we also compared Lrrk1 and Lrrk2 expression in the same tissues. Using radioactive in situ hybridization, we found ubiquitous expression of both genes at low level from embryonic stage E9.5 onward, which progressively increased up until birth. The developing central nervous system (CNS) displayed no prominent Lrrk2 mRNA signals at these time-points. However, in the entire postnatal brain Lrrk2 became detectable, showing strongest level in the striatum and the cortex of adult mice; Lrrk1 was only detectable in the mitral cell layer of the olfactory bulb. Thus, due to the non-overlapping expression patterns, a redundant function of Lrrk2 and Lrrk1 in the pathogenesis of PD seems to be unlikely. Quantification of Lrrk2 mRNA and protein level in several brain regions by real-time PCR and Western blot verified the striatum and cortex as hotspots of postnatal Lrrk2 expression. Strong expression of Lrrk2 is mainly found in neurons, specifically in the dopamine receptor 1 (DRD1a) and 2 (DRD2)-positive subpopulations of the striatal medium spiny neurons. Finally, we identified 2 new splice-variants of Lrrk2 in RNA-samples from various adult brain regions and organs: a variant with a skipped exon 5 and a truncated variant terminating in an alternative exon 42a. In order to identify the origin of these two splice variants, we also analysed primary neural cultures independently and found cell-specific expression patterns for these variants in microglia and astrocytes.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63778. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063778 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Patients with SNCA multiplications, SCA2 CAG repeat expansions and VPS35 mutations were excluded. Because digenic parkinsonism has been observed (Dächsel et al., 2006), subjects were screened for LRRK2 p.G2019S (most already reported; Lesage et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-gamma (EIF4G1) gene, encoding a component of the eIF4F translation initiation complex, were recently reported as a possible cause for the autosomal dominant form of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we describe the screening of all 31 EIF4G1 coding exons in a series of 251 index cases with autosomal dominant PD, mostly of French origin and in 236 European control subjects. We identified 12 rare coding variants (either nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions or in frame deletions/insertions), including 6 variants present only in cases and 3 in controls. Segregation was possible only for 1 variant (p.E462delInsGK) that was found in 2 affected siblings. In addition, we found 2 previously reported pathogenic variants in 2 isolated patients (p.G686C) and in a control subject (p.R1197W). These data do not support the pathogenicity of several EIF4G1 variants in PD, at least in the French population.
Neurobiology of aging 05/2012; 33(9):2233.e1-2233.e5. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.05.006 · 5.01 Impact Factor
"Through these studies, it has become clear that the frequency of LRRK2 variants may be population specific. For example, the prevalence of Lrrk2 p.G2019S varies greatly, accounting for approximately 1% of PD cases in populations of European origin and less than 1% in Asian populations, but increasing up to 41% in North Africans  . Also, the identification of PD risk factors Lrrk2 p.R1628P and p.G2385R in Asia shows the power of good ethnicallymatched case-control studies  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease, with frequencies displaying a high degree of population-specificity. Although more than 100 coding substitutions have been identified, only seven have been proven to be highly penetrant pathogenic mutations. Studies however are lacking in non-white populations. Recently, Lrrk2 p.Q1111H (rs78365431) was identified in two affected Hispanic brothers and absent in 386 non-Hispanic white healthy controls. We therefore screened this variant in 1460 individuals (1150 PD patients and 310 healthy controls) from 4 Latin American countries (Peru, Chile, Uruguay and Argentina). In our case-control series from Peru and Chile we observed an increased frequency of Lrrk2 p.Q1111H in patients (7.9%) compared to controls (5.4%) although the difference did not reach significance (OR 1.38; p = 0.10). In addition, the frequency of Lrrk2 p.Q1111H varied greatly between populations and further screening in a set of pure Amerindian and pure Spanish controls suggested that this variant likely originated in an Amerindian population. Further studies in other Latin American populations are warranted to assess its role as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. Screening in Parkinson's disease patients from under-represented populations will increase our understanding of the role of LRRK2 variants in disease risk worldwide.
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