Effect of chronic morphine on the dentate gyrus neurogenic microenvironment

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9070, USA.
Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.36). 04/2009; 159(3):1003-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.01.020
Source: PubMed


Opiates, such as morphine, decrease neurogenesis in the postnatal hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) by inhibiting progenitor proliferation and maturation. However, it is not known how morphine influences the growth factors and vasculature that encompass the neurogenic SGZ microenvironment. We examined morphine's effect on pro- and anti-proliferative factors in the dentate gyrus (DG; Experiment 1) as well as the DG neurovasculature itself (Experiment 2). For Experiment 1, mice were implanted with subcutaneous sham or morphine pellets (0 and 48 h) and were decapitated 24 or 96 h later. One brain hemisphere was postfixed to examine proliferation by immunohistochemistry, and a DG-enriched sample was dissected from the other hemisphere to examine the neurogenic microenvironment via immunoblotting for known pro- and anti-proliferative factors. Consistent with previous results, morphine decreased the number of proliferating cells in the SGZ, as the number of Ki67-immunoreactive (IR) cells was decreased at 96 h. Morphine did not alter DG levels of the pro-proliferative factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor, anti-proliferative factor interleukin-1 beta, or their receptors TrkB and IL1R1 at either time point. However, morphine increased the pro-proliferative factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at 96 h. Given that VEGF is also a potent angiogenic factor, Experiment 2 examined whether the morphine-induced increase in VEGF correlated with altered DG neurovasculature. Mice were implanted with morphine pellets as in Experiment 1, and 2 h before perfusion (24 or 96 h) were administered bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; intraperitoneal, 150 mg/kg). Tissue was co-stained for BrdU and the endothelial cell marker endoglin to enable examination of DG vessels and proximity of BrdU-IR cells to endoglin-IR vessels. At 96 h, endoglin-IR vessel area and perimeter were increased, but proximity of BrdU-IR cells to endoglin-IR vessels remained unchanged. These data suggest that following chronic morphine exposure, factors within the neurogenic microenvironment are maintained or upregulated to compensate for decreased SGZ proliferation.

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Available from: Amy A Arguello, Dec 03, 2014
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    • "In their rapidly developing brain, the effect of any anesthetic or analgesic has the potential to have major negative implications. Chronic opioid administration has been shown to decrease neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and suppresses glial cell growth, while inhibiting the generation of new neurons [9], [10], [13]. These observed effects appear to be primarily mediated via the opioid receptors [35], [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic morphine treatment inhibits neural progenitor cell (NPC) progression and negatively effects hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the effect of acute opioid treatment on cell development and its influence on NPC differentiation and proliferation in vitro is unknown. We aim to investigate the effect of a single, short term exposure of morphine on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of NPCs and the mechanism involved. Methods Cell cultures from 14-day mouse embryos were exposed to different concentrations of morphine and its antagonist naloxone for 24 hours and proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis were studied. Proliferating cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and cell fate was studied with immunocytochemistry. Results Cells treated with morphine demonstrated decreased BrdU expression with increased morphine concentrations. Analysis of double-labeled cells showed a decrease in cells co-stained for BrdU with nestin and an increase in cells co-stained with BrdU and neuron-specific class III β-tubuline (TUJ1) in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, a significant increase in caspase-3 activity was observed in the nestin- positive cells. Addition of naloxone to morphine-treated NPCs reversed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of morphine. Conclusions Short term morphine exposure induced inhibition of NPC proliferation and increased active caspase-3 expression in a dose dependent manner. Morphine induces neuronal and glial differentiation and decreases the expression of nestin- positive cells. These effects were reversed with the addition of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Our results demonstrate the effects of short term morphine administration on the proliferation and differentiation of NPCs and imply a mu-receptor mechanism in the regulation of NPC survival.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103043. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103043 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Tdo2 and Dsp are maturation marker genes that were highly expressed in the DG, and showed significant down-regulation in both α-CaMKII hKO and pilocarpine-treated mice. The Il1r1 gene, in particular, has been implicated to play a role in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells 44. Several studies have demonstrated that Il1r1 mRNA is highly expressed in the DG GC bodies 45, 46, but their functional role is unclear. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives There is accumulating evidence to suggest psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, share common etiologies, pathophysiologies, genetics, and drug responses with many of the epilepsies. Here, we explored overlaps in cellular/molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral phenotypes between putative mouse models of bipolar disorder/schizophrenia and epilepsy. We tested the hypothesis that an immature dentate gyrus (iDG), whose association with psychosis in patients has recently been reported, represents a common phenotype of both diseases. Methods Behaviors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (α-CaMKII) heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice, which are a representative bipolar disorder/schizophrenia model displaying iDG, and pilocarpine-treated mice, which are a representative epilepsy model, were tested followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)/immunohistochemistry for mRNA/protein expression associated with an iDG phenotype. In vitro electrophysiology of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) was examined in pilocarpine-treated epileptic mice. Results The two disease models demonstrated similar behavioral deficits, such as hyperactivity, poor working memory performance, and social withdrawal. Significant reductions in mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of the mature neuronal marker calbindin and concomitant increases in mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of the immature neuronal marker calretinin represent iDG signatures that are present in both mice models. Electrophysiologically, we have confirmed that DG GCs from pilocarpine-treated mice represent an immature state. A significant decrease in hippocampal α-CaMKII protein levels was also found in both models. Conclusions Our data have shown iDG signatures from mouse models of both bipolar disorder/schizophrenia and epilepsy. The evidence suggests that the iDG may, in part, be responsible for the abnormal behavioral phenotype, and that the underlying pathophysiologies in epilepsy and bipolar disorder/schizophrenia are strikingly similar.
    Bipolar Disorders 04/2013; 15(4). DOI:10.1111/bdi.12064 · 4.97 Impact Factor

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