Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres: a potent oral delivery system to elicit systemic immune response against inactivated rabies virus.
ABSTRACT Rabies is an endemic, fatal zoonotic disease in the developing countries. Oral vaccination strategies are suitable for rabies control in developing countries. Studies were performed to investigate the suitability of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microspheres as an oral delivery system for beta-propiolactone inactivated concentrated rabies virus (CRV). Immune responses induced by encapsulated (PLG+CRV) and un-encapsulated inactivated rabies virus after oral and intraperitoneal route administrations were compared. The anti-rabies virus IgG antibody titer, virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers obtained by mouse neutralization test (MNT) and IgG2a and IgG1 titers of mice group immunized orally with PLG+CRV showed significantly (p<0.001) higher response than the group immunized orally with un-encapsulated CRV. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between groups inoculated by intraperitoneal route. The stimulation index (SI) obtained by lymphoproliferation assay of PLG+CRV oral group also showed significantly (p<0.001) higher response than the group immunized orally with un-encapsulated CRV, suggesting that oral immunization activates Th1-mediated cellular immunity. Immunized mice of all experimental groups were challenged intracerebrally with a lethal dose of virulent rabies virus Challenge Virus Standard (CVS). The survival rates of mice immunized orally with PLG+CRV and CRV alone were 75% and 50%, respectively, whereas intraperitoneally immunized groups showed 100% protection. The overall results of humoral, cellular immune response and survival rates of mice immunized orally with PLG+CRV were significantly (p<0.001) higher than those of mice immunized orally with CRV alone. These data suggest that the PLG encapsulated inactivated rabies virus can be used for oral immunization against rabies.
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ABSTRACT: The present work describes the formulation of Eudragit(®) L30 D-55 microparticles (MP) alone or with mucoadhesive agents, alginate or Carbopol(®), as an approach for the development of an oral cholera vaccine. In the first part, a spray drying technique was optimized for microparticle elaboration, obtaining a microparticle size ranging from 7 to 9μm with high encapsulation efficiencies. Moreover, gastro resistant properties and Vibrio cholerae (VC) antigenicity were maintained, but for Eudragit(®)-Carbopol(®) microparticles which showed low antigenicity values, ≈25%. Next, a stability study was performed following ICH Q1 A (R2) guidelines, i. e. 25°C-60% relative humidity (RH) for 12months, and 30°C-65% RH and 40°C-75% RH for 6months. Upon storage, microparticle size changed slightly, 1μm for Eudragit(®)-alginate MPs and 0.36μm for Eudragit(®)MP. However, gastro resistance and antigenicity values were kept in an acceptance range. In the third stage of this work, in vivo experiments were performed. The immune response evoked was measured by means of vibriocidal titer quantification, observing that Eudragit(®)-alginate MPs were able to induce stronger immune responses, comparable to the free VC. Therefore, microencapsulation of VC by spray drying could be proposed as an approach to a cold chain free and effective oral cholera vaccine.International Journal of Pharmaceutics 03/2013; · 3.99 Impact Factor
Article: Viral Vaccines in India: An Overview[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Viruses cause a large number of diseases in humans, some of which are fatal, while others are highly debilitating. A majority of viral diseases attack infants and young children, while others strike people in their prime. Development of preventive measures against viral diseases is, therefore, of paramount importance. Vaccination is the most cost-effective medical intervention for preventing mortality and morbidity against infectious diseases. A number of effective and safe vaccines are currently available against several viral diseases of significant medical importance. Many of these manufactured in India, are at par with international standards and are affordable. For many other viral diseases, for which vaccines are currently not available, research is underway at various national laboratories, as well as in the private sector companies in India. The present overview highlights the various vaccine preventable viral diseases that are of special importance to India and aims to provide a glimpse of the various vaccines that are currently available, or are under development in India.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section B: Biological Sciences 11/2011; · 0.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Delayed onset of, and low magnitude of, protective immune responses are major drawbacks limiting the practical utility of plasmid vaccination against rabies. In this study we evaluated whether nanoformulation with the novel poly(ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer can enhance the immunogenicity and efficacy of a plasmid-based rabies vaccine. A plasmid vaccine construct (pIRES-Rgp) was prepared by cloning the full-length rabies virus glycoprotein gene into pIRES vector. Drawing upon the results of our previous study, a dendriplex (dendrimer-DNA complex) of pIRES-Rgp was made with PETIM dendrimer (10:1 w/w, PETIM:pIRES-Rgp). In vitro transfection was done on baby hamster kidney (BHK)-21 cells to evaluate expression of glycoprotein gene from pIRES-Rgp and PETIM-pIRES-Rgp. Subsequently, groups of Swiss albino mice were immunized intramuscularly with pIRES-Rgp or PETIM-pIRES-Rgp. A commercially available cell culture rabies vaccine was included for comparison. Rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers in the immune sera were evaluated on days 14, 28, and 90 by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. Finally, an intracerebral challenge study using a challenge virus standard strain of rabies virus was done to evaluate the protective efficacy of the formulations. Protective levels of RVNA titer (≥0.5 IU/mL) were observed by day 14 in animals immunized with pIRES-Rgp and its dendriplex. Notably, PETIM-pIRES-Rgp produced 4.5-fold higher RVNA titers compared to pIRES-Rgp at this time point. All mice immunized with the PETIM-pIRES-Rgp survived the intracerebral rabies virus challenge, compared with 60% in the group which received pIRES-Rgp. Our results suggest that nanoformulation with PETIM dendrimer can produce an earlier onset of a high-titered protective antibody response to a plasmid-based rabies vaccine. PETIM dendriplexing appears to be an efficacious nonviral delivery strategy to enhance genetic vaccination.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9:627-34. · 4.20 Impact Factor