Sip size of orangeade: Effects on intake and sensory-specific satiation

Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 05/2009; 102(7):1091-7. DOI: 10.1017/S000711450932574X
Source: PubMed


Sensory-specific satiation (SSS) drives food selection and contributes to meal termination. We hypothesised that smaller sips would increase SSS due to increased oro-sensory exposure, irrespective of energy content. The objective was to determine the effects of sip size and energy content on ad libitum intake of orangeade and subjective SSS for orangeade. Orangeade intake and ratings of wanting and liking were measured before and after ad libitum orangeade consumption in a 2 x 2 cross-over design (n 53). Conditions differed in energy content (no-energy v. regular-energy orangeade) and in sip size (large, 20 g/sip v. small, 5 g/sip). The mean intake of both orangeades was lower when consumed with small sips than when consumed with large sips (regular-energy, 352 v. 493 g; no-energy, 338 v. 405 g; both P < 0.001). When consumed with large sips, the mean intake of no-energy orangeade was lower than that of regular-energy orangeade (P = 0.02). When consumed with small sips, subjective SSS (based on the desire to drink) was higher for no-energy orangeade than for regular-energy orangeade (P = 0.01), while mean intake was comparable. We concluded that smaller sip size, i.e. increased oro-sensory exposure per unit of consumption, can lower intake of sweet drinks. Only with low oro-sensory exposure (large sip size) was intake higher for an energy-containing sweet drink than for a no-energy sweet drink. This suggests that intake of sweet drinks is stimulated by (metabolic) reward value and inhibited by sensory satiation. This underpins the importance of SSS for meal termination.

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    • "). To re- 70 verse this trend and slow the rate of calorie intake, smaller bite sizes 71 (Weijzen, Zandstra, Alfieri, & de Graaf, 2008; Weijzen et al., 2009; 72 Zijlstra et al., 2009), more che Q2 wing activity (Li et al., 2001; Smit 73 et al., 2011), and a longer oro-sensory exposure time (Bolhuis 0195-6663/$ -see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous studies with model foods have shown that softer textures lead to higher eating rates and higher ad-libitum food intake and higher intensity of salt taste has been shown to result in a lower ad-libitum food intake. These observations have yet to be replicated in the context of realistic solid hot meal components. AIM: The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of texture and taste on the ad-libitum intake of a realistic hot lunchtime meal. METHODS: The meals consisted of potatoes, carrots, steak and gravy varied according to a 2 (texture: mashed vs. whole) x 2 (taste: standard taste vs. strong taste) design. The texture dimension referred to mashed potatoes, mashed carrots and pieces of steak vs. whole boiled potatoes, whole boiled carrots and whole steak. The taste was varied by manipulating the taste intensity of the gravy to be either standard or high intensity savoury taste. The current study used a between groups, single course ad-libitum design whereby subjects were recruited for a one off meal study, during which their food intake was measured. The four groups consisted of about 40 subjects (mashed, standard, n = 37; mashed, savoury n = 39; whole, standard n = 40; and whole, savoury n = 41) matched for age (average age = 44.8 ± 5.3), gender (on average 19 males and 20 females), normal BMI (average 22.6 ± 1.7) and dietary restraint score (DEBQ score = 1.74 ± 0.6). RESULTS: The results showed that the estimated means of the intake of the two mashed conditions was 563.2 ± 20.3g and intake of whole meal was 527.5 ± 20.0g (p = 0.23). The texture effect was significant in the higher savoury condition with an average of 91g less food consumed in the solid-savoury meal than in the mashed-savoury meal. This effect was not replicated in the standard gravy condition, with no significant difference between solid and mashed textures. This was reflected in an interaction effect that was approaching significance (p = 0.051). The estimated mean eating rate in the two mashed conditions was 57.0 ± 2.5g and was significantly higher than the whole meal condition (47.2 ± 2.5g (p < 0.05), with no difference in eating rate between the standard and savoury gravy conditions. DISCUSSION: Although interpretation was made difficult by the between groups design and the interaction between taste∗texture, the results nonetheless confirm the effect of texture on eating rate and ad-libitum intake for solid savoury meal components. The impact of taste on ad-libitum intake of a solid meal remains unclear. We conclude that people consumed more of the meal when the food was simultaneously mashed and savoury. Food texture may be used to produce slower eating rates that result in a reduced overall energy intake within a realistic hot lunchtime meal.
    Appetite 10/2012; 60(1). DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2012.10.002 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    • "Sensory-specific satiation is facilitated by exposure time [12]–[13], sensory complexity of the food [14], and intensity [15]. This is not to be confused with sensory-specific satiety, a phenomenon that refers to the decline in pleasantness of a particular food when compared to the pleasantness of uneaten foods [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Food is evaluated for various attributes. One of the key food evaluation domains is hedonicity. As food is consumed, its hedonic valence decreases (due to prolonged sensory stimulation) and hedonic habituation results. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in food pleasantness ratings during consumption of a simple food by individuals without olfactory experience with food as compared to normosmics. 15 congenital anosmics and 15 normosmic controls were each presented with ten 10 g banana slices. Each was visually inspected, then smelled and chewed for ten seconds and subsequently rated for hedonicity on a 21-point scale. There was a significant difference in pleasantness ratings between congenital anosmics and controls (F(1, 26) = 6.71, p = .02) with the anosmics exhibiting higher ratings than the controls, a significant main repeated-measures effect on the ratings (F(1.85, 48) = 12.15, p<.001), which showed a decreasing trend over the course of consumption, as well as a significant portion*group interaction (F(1.85, 48) = 3.54, p = .04), with the anosmic participants experiencing a less pronounced decline. The results of the present explorative study suggest that over the course of consumption of a simple food, congenitally anosmic individuals experience differential patterns of appreciation of food as compared to normosmics. In this particular case, the decrease of hedonic valence was less pronounced in congenital anosmics.
    PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e33921. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033921 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "smaller bite sizes . de Wijk , Polet , and Bult ( 2009 ) has found that higher aroma intensities resulted in smaller bite sizes . Adjusting the bite size allows people to self - dose the flavor intensity , and conse - quently the amount of nutrients . Smaller bite sizes are associated with lower intake ( Wansink , van Ittersum , & Painter , 2006 ; Weijzen et al . , 2009 ; Zijlstra et al . , 2009 ) . Whether salt intensity affects bite size and whether that leads to an decreased intake will be investigated in a next study ."
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice.
    Appetite 02/2012; 58(1):48-55. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2011.09.001 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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