Prognostic significance of pre B cell leukemia transcription factor 2 (PBX2) expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Previous studies on the mammary carcinoma cell line have shown that the pre B cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (PBX1) was a transcription factor for valosin-containing protein (VCP), which is involved in invasion and metastasis of cancers. The roles of PBX1 and PBX2, a highly homologous transcription factor to PBX1, for expression of VCP were examined in the cell lines from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The effects of PBX1 and PBX2 on VCP expression were examined with siRNA in A549 and PC14 NSCLC cell lines. Expression levels of PBX2 and VCP were immunohistochemically examined and compared with each other in 206 NSCLC cases. Subsequently, significance of PBX expression in clinical behavior of NSCLC patients was evaluated. Expression levels of VCP mRNA significantly decreased when PBX2 but not PBX1 expression was knocked down in NSCLC cell lines. Immunohistochemically, staining intensity of PBX2 was correlated with that of VCP in clinical samples. Then correlation of PBX2 expression and clinical behavior of NSCLC patients was evaluated. Univariate analysis revealed high expression levels of PBX2 and VCP to be poor prognosticators for overall and disease-free survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that high expression of VCP but not PBX2 to be an independent prognostic factor. PBX2 is a transcription factor for VCP in NSCLC. Because high levels of PBX2 expression correlated with prognosis of NSCLC, PBX2 could be a target molecule for treatment of NSCLC.
Article: Critical role of VCP/p97 in the pathogenesis and progression of non-small cell lung carcinoma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 is an AAA ATPase molecular chaperone that regulates vital cellular functions and protein-processing. A recent study indicated that VCP expression levels are correlated with prognosis and progression of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We not only verified these findings but also identified the specific role of VCP in NSCLC pathogenesis and progression. Our results show that VCP is significantly overexpressed in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) as compared to normal tissues and cell lines (p<0.001). Moreover, we observed the corresponding accumulation of ubiquitinated-proteins in NSCLC cell lines and tissues as compared to the normal controls. VCP inhibition by si/shRNA or small-molecule (Eeyarestatin I, EerI) significantly (p<0.05, p<0.00007) suppressed H1299 proliferation and migration but induced (p<0.00001) apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry verified this data and shows that VCP inhibition significantly (p<0.001, p<0.003) induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phases. We also found that VCP directly regulates p53 and NFκB protein levels as a potential mechanism to control tumor cell proliferation and progression. Finally, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of VCP inhibition and observed significantly reduced NSCLC tumor growth in both in vitro and xenograft murine (athymic-nude) models after EerI treatment (p<0.05). Thus, targeting VCP in NSCLC may provide a novel strategy to restore p53 and NFκB levels and ameliorate the growth and tumorigenicity, leading to improved clinical outcomes.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e29073. · 4.09 Impact Factor