Tobacco smoke induces polycomb-mediated repression of Dickkopf-1 in lung cancer cells.
ABSTRACT Limited information is available about epigenetic mechanisms by which cigarette smoke enhances the initiation and progression of lung cancer. To examine this issue, A549 and Calu-6 lung cancer cells were cultured in normal media with or without tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) under clinically relevant exposure conditions. Ten-day TSC exposure dramatically increased the tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells in nude mice. Microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) experiments revealed that this phenomenon coincided with diminished expression of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1). Western blot, chromatin immunoprecipitation, methylation-specific PCR, and pyrosequencing experiments showed that repression of Dkk-1 coincided with decreased H4K16Ac, increased H3K27me3, and recruitment of SirT1, EZH2, SUZ12, and Bmi1 without DNA hypermethylation within the Dkk-1 promoter despite prolonged TSC exposures. Removal of TSC from culture media resulted in loss of promoter-associated polycomb repressor complexes and reexpression of Dkk-1. siRNA-mediated knockdown of EZH2 and SirT1 partially abrogated TSC-mediated inhibition of Dkk-1 expression. Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR array experiments showed that TSC exposure as well as knockdown of Dkk-1 activated Wnt signaling and significantly up-regulated Wnt5a in lung cancer cells. Knockdown of Dkk-1 recapitulated the dramatic protumorigenic effects of TSC exposure in Calu-6 cells. Despite the transient nature of Dkk-1 repression following TSC exposure in vitro, Dkk-1 remained silenced in tumor xenografts derived from TSC-treated Calu-6 cells. Collectively, these data provide evidence that cigarette smoke directly engages polycomb machinery to activate a signaling network implicated in maintenance of cancer stem cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Ichiro NakanoCancer Cell 05/2013; · 24.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The histone methyltransferase EZH2 has been in the limelight of the field of cancer epigenetics for a decade now since it was first discovered to exhibit an elevated expression in metastatic prostate cancer. It persists to attract much scientific attention due to its important role in the process of cancer development and its potential of being an effective therapeutic target. Thus here we review the dysregulation of EZH2 in prostate cancer, its function, upstream regulators, downstream effectors, and current status of EZH2-targeting approaches. This review therefore provides a comprehensive overview of EZH2 in the context of prostate cancer.Protein & Cell 04/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background:Polycomb group genes (PcGs) are epigenetic effectors implicated in most cancer hallmarks. The mutational status of all PcGs has never been systematically assessed in solid tumours.Methods:We conducted a multi-step analysis on publically available databases and patient samples to identify somatic aberrations of PcGs.Results:Data from more than 1000 cancer patients show for the first time that the PcG member PHC3 is amplified in three epithelial neoplasms (rate: 8-35%). This aberration predicts poorer prognosis in lung and uterine carcinomas (P<0.01). Gene amplification correlates with mRNA overexpression (P<0.01), suggesting a functional role of this aberration.Conclusion:PHC3 amplification may emerge as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target in a relevant fraction of epithelial tumours.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 13 August 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.454 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor