Human Glioblastoma-Derived Cancer Stem Cells: Establishment of Invasive Glioma Models and Treatment with Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Vectors

Molecular Neurosurgery Laboratory, Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 05/2009; 69(8):3472-81. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3886
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Glioblastoma, the most malignant type of primary brain tumor, is one of the solid cancers where cancer stem cells have been isolated, and studies have suggested resistance of those cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here, we report the establishment of CSC-enriched cultures derived from human glioblastoma specimens. They grew as neurospheres in serum-free medium with epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2, varied in the level of CD133 expression and very efficiently formed highly invasive and/or vascular tumors upon intracerebral implantation into immunodeficient mice. As a novel therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma-derived cancer stem-like cells (GBM-SC), we have tested oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) vectors. We show that although ICP6 (UL39)-deleted mutants kill GBM-SCs as efficiently as wild-type HSV, the deletion of gamma34.5 significantly attenuated the vectors due to poor replication. However, this was significantly reversed by the additional deletion of alpha47. Infection with oHSV G47Delta (ICP6(-), gamma34.5(-), alpha47(-)) not only killed GBM-SCs but also inhibited their self-renewal as evidenced by the inability of viable cells to form secondary tumor spheres. Importantly, despite the highly invasive nature of the intracerebral tumors generated by GBM-SCs, intratumoral injection of G47Delta significantly prolonged survival. These results for the first time show the efficacy of oHSV against human GBM-SCs, and correlate this cytotoxic property with specific oHSV mutations. This is important for designing new oHSV vectors and clinical trials. Moreover, the new glioma models described in this study provide powerful tools for testing experimental therapeutics and studying invasion and angiogenesis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) potently blocks protein synthesis by catalyzing the inactivation of elongation factor-2 (EF-2), and PE-cytotoxins have been used as anti-tumor agents. However, their effective clinical translation in solid tumors has been confounded by off-target delivery, systemic toxicity and short chemotherapeutic half-life. To overcome these limitations we have created toxin-resistant stem cells by modifying endogenous EF-2, and engineered them to secrete PE-cytotoxins targeting IL13Rα2 and EGFR expressed by many glioblastomas (GBM). Molecular analysis correlated efficacy of PE-targeted cytotoxins with levels of cognate receptor expression, and optical imaging was applied to simultaneously track the kinetics of protein synthesis inhibition and GBM cell viability in vivo. Stem cell-based delivery of IL13-PE in a clinically-relevant GBM resection model led to increased long-term survival of mice compared to IL13-PE protein infusion. Moreover, multiple patient-derived GBM lines responded to treatment, underscoring its clinical relevance. In sum, integrating stem cell-based engineering, multimodal imaging and delivery of PE-cytotoxins in a clinically-relevant GBM model represents a novel strategy and a potential advancement in GBM therapy.
    Stem Cells 10/2014; DOI:10.1002/stem.1874 · 7.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oncolytic virus therapy is being evaluated in clinical trials for human glioma. While it is widely assumed that the patient's immune response to the virus infection limits the therapy's utility, investigations into the specific cell type(s) involved in this response have been performed using non-specific pharmacological inhibitors or allogeneic models with compromised immunity. To identify the immune cells that participate in clearing an oncolytic infection in glioma, we used flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to immunophenotype an orthotopic glioma model in immunocompetent mice after Myxoma virus (MYXV) administration. These studies revealed a large resident microglia and macrophage population in untreated tumours, and robust monocyte, T and NK cell infiltration 3 days following MYXV infection. To determine the role on the clinical utility of MYXV therapy for glioma, we used a combination of knockout mouse strains and specific immunocyte ablation techniques. Collectively, our experiments identify an important role for tumour-resident myeloid cells and overlapping roles for recruited NK and T cells in the clearance and efficacy of oncolytic MYXV from gliomas. Using a cyclophosphamide regimen to achieve lymphoablation prior and during MYXV treatment, we prevented treatment-induced peripheral immunocyte recruitment and, surprisingly, largely ablated the tumour-resident macrophage population. Virotherapy of CPA-treated animals resulted in sustained viral infection within the glioma as well as a substantial survival advantage. This study demonstrates that resistance to MYXV virotherapy in syngeneic glioma models involves a multi-faceted cellular immune response that can be overcome with CPA-mediated lymphoablation.
    Cancer Research 10/2014; DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-0876 · 9.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014