Fine Mapping of Chromosome 6q23-25 Region in Familial Lung Cancer Families Reveals RGS17 as a Likely Candidate Gene

Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.72). 05/2009; 15(8):2666-74. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-2335
Source: PubMed


We have previously mapped a major susceptibility locus influencing familial lung cancer risk to chromosome 6q23-25. However, the causal gene at this locus remains undetermined. In this study, we further refined this locus to identify a single candidate gene, by fine mapping using microsatellite markers and association studies using high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).
Six multigenerational families with five or more affected members were chosen for fine-mapping the 6q linkage region using microsatellite markers. For association mapping, we genotyped 24 6q-linked cases and 72 unrelated noncancer controls from the Genetic Epidemiology of Lung Cancer Consortium resources using the Affymetrix 500K chipset. Significant associations were validated in two independent familial lung cancer populations: 226 familial lung cases and 313 controls from the Genetic Epidemiology of Lung Cancer Consortium, and 154 familial cases and 325 controls from Mayo Clinic. Each familial case was chosen from one high-risk lung cancer family that has three or more affected members.
A region-wide scan across 6q23-25 found significant association between lung cancer susceptibility and three single nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the RGS17 gene. This association was further confirmed in two independent familial lung cancer populations. By quantitative real-time PCR analysis of matched tumor and normal human tissues, we found that RGS17 transcript accumulation is highly and consistently increased in sporadic lung cancers. Human lung tumor cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in nude mice are inhibited upon knockdown of RGS17 levels.
RGS17 is a major candidate for the familial lung cancer susceptibility locus on chromosome 6q23-25.

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    • "Reported risk SNPs at 6p21 (rs3117582 and rs3131379) are not polymorphic in the Chinese Han population, so were excluded from this study. Rs4488809 and rs4083914, previously identified by GWA and large cohort investigations, were also shown to be significantly associated with lung cancer risk in this study [23,24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Lung cancer is a complex polygenic disease. Although recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple susceptibility loci for lung cancer, most of these variants have not been validated in a Chinese population. In this study, we investigated whether a genetic risk score combining multiple. Methods Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in previous GWA or large cohort studies were genotyped in 5068 Chinese case–control subjects. The genetic risk score (GRS) based on these SNPs was estimated by two approaches: a simple risk alleles count (cGRS) and a weighted (wGRS) method. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) in combination with the bootstrap resampling method was used to assess the predictive performance of the genetic risk score for lung cancer. Results Four independent SNPs (rs2736100, rs402710, rs4488809 and rs4083914), were found to be associated with a risk of lung cancer. The wGRS based on these four SNPs was a better predictor than cGRS. Using a liability threshold model, we estimated that these four SNPs accounted for only 4.02% of genetic variance in lung cancer. Smoking history contributed significantly to lung cancer (P < 0.001) risk [AUC = 0.619 (0.603-0.634)], and incorporated with wGRS gave an AUC value of 0.639 (0.621-0.652) after adjustment for over-fitting. This model shows promise for assessing lung cancer risk in a Chinese population. Conclusion Our results indicate that although genetic variants related to lung cancer only added moderate discriminatory accuracy, it still improved the predictive ability of the assessment model in Chinese population.
    BMC Medical Genetics 12/2012; 13(1):118. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-13-118 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    • "Interest in the physiology of the RGSZ2 protein has increased in recent years, particularly with a view to understanding the mechanisms regulating its function to certain human cancers. The RGSZ2 gene is potentially behind the familial lung and bladder cancer susceptibility locus on chromosome 6q23–25 [11], [12], and the RGSZ2 protein is over expressed in both human lung and prostate cancer [13], [14]. The RGSZ2 has also been implicated in human cognitive ability [15], and the genome wide association database relates this gene to Alzheimer's disease, cerebral aneurysm, narcolepsy, and panic disorder ( "
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    ABSTRACT: The RGSZ2 gene, a regulator of G protein signaling, has been implicated in cognition, Alzheimer's disease, panic disorder, schizophrenia and several human cancers. This 210 amino acid protein is a GTPase accelerating protein (GAP) on Gαi/o/z subunits, binds to the N terminal of neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) negatively regulating the production of nitric oxide, and binds to the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 at the C terminus of different G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We now describe a novel regulatory mechanism of RGS GAP function through the covalent incorporation of Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifiers (SUMO) into RGSZ2 RGS box (RH) and the SUMO non covalent binding with SUMO-interacting motifs (SIM): one upstream of the RH and a second within this region. The covalent attachment of SUMO does not affect RGSZ2 binding to GPCR-activated GαGTP subunits but abolishes its GAP activity. By contrast, non-covalent binding of SUMO with RH SIM impedes RGSZ2 from interacting with GαGTP subunits. Binding of SUMO to the RGSZ2 SIM that lies outside the RH does not affect GαGTP binding or GAP activity, but it could lead to regulatory interactions with sumoylated proteins. Thus, sumoylation and SUMO-SIM interactions constitute a new regulatory mechanism of RGS GAP function and therefore of GPCR cell signaling as well.
    PLoS ONE 12/2011; 6(12):e28557. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0028557 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "This trend is consistent with our observation that RGS17 expression is lost during chemoresistance, although the chemosensitivity of the tumors in these datasets was not reported. Notably, our results are in contrast with a recent study showing that RGS17, which is overexpressed in human lung and prostate cancer [35-37], induces tumor cell proliferation [38]. In lung cancer cells, RGS17 proliferative effects are mediated by cAMP activation of PKA and CREB. "
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    ABSTRACT: A critical therapeutic challenge in epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the development of chemoresistance among tumor cells following exposure to first line chemotherapeutics. The molecular and genetic changes that drive the development of chemoresistance are unknown, and this lack of mechanistic insight is a major obstacle in preventing and predicting the occurrence of refractory disease. We have recently shown that Regulators of G-protein Signaling (RGS) proteins negatively regulate signaling by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a growth factor elevated in malignant ascites fluid that triggers oncogenic growth and survival signaling in ovarian cancer cells. The goal of this study was to determine the role of RGS protein expression in ovarian cancer chemoresistance. In this study, we find that RGS2, RGS5, RGS10 and RGS17 transcripts are expressed at significantly lower levels in cells resistant to chemotherapy compared with parental, chemo-sensitive cells in gene expression datasets of multiple models of chemoresistance. Further, exposure of SKOV-3 cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy causes acute, persistent downregulation of RGS10 and RGS17 transcript expression. Direct inhibition of RGS10 or RGS17 expression using siRNA knock-down significantly reduces chemotherapy-induced cell toxicity. The effects of cisplatin, vincristine, and docetaxel are inhibited following RGS10 and RGS17 knock-down in cell viability assays and phosphatidyl serine externalization assays in SKOV-3 cells and MDR-HeyA8 cells. We further show that AKT activation is higher following RGS10 knock-down and RGS 10 and RGS17 overexpression blocked LPA mediated activation of AKT, suggesting that RGS proteins may blunt AKT survival pathways. Taken together, our data suggest that chemotherapy exposure triggers loss of RGS10 and RGS17 expression in ovarian cancer cells, and that loss of expression contributes to the development of chemoresistance, possibly through amplification of endogenous AKT signals. Our results establish RGS10 and RGS17 as novel regulators of cell survival and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer cells and suggest that their reduced expression may be diagnostic of chemoresistance.
    Molecular Cancer 11/2010; 9(1):289. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-9-289 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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