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    ABSTRACT: Continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) or hemofiltration conducted with pre- (CVVHpre) or post- (CVVHpost) dilution modes are recommended to treat patients with acute renal failure (ARF) and cardiovascular instability. The efficiency of the three techniques was compared in a study including 18 critically ill patients with ARF. Their mean age was 62.1 +/- 16.7 years, and their mean SAPS II score was 59.5 +/- 14.3. They were treated sequentially with the three techniques for periods of 24 hours each (randomized assignment to one technique the first 24 hours followed by the two others). The PRISMA device and M 100 (AN69S) membrane were used in all instances. Blood and replacement (or dialysis) flow rates were kept at 150 and 25 ml/min, respectively. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, inorganic phosphorus, beta2 microglobulin (beta2m), and retinol binding protein (RBP) were measured every 12 hours in plasma and in 12 hours filtrate collection for 3 days. The results are expressed as filtrate/mean plasma (F/P) ratio for the 12 hour period. Removal of small molecules was 16% higher using CVVHD and CVVHpost than CVVHpre. For beta2m and RBP, CVVHpre was, respectively, 43% and 26% more efficient than CVVHD. CVVHpost gave higher but statistically different removal than CVVHpre only for beta2m. CVVHpost was the most efficient technique for removal of small proteins, but this advantage could be easily counterbalanced using higher volume substitution.
    ASAIO Journal 01/2004; 50(1):81-4. DOI:10.1097/01.MAT.0000104823.48673.BD · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of high volume continuous venovenous hemofiltration (HVCVVH) on hemodynamic and outcome in patients with septic shock. The primary end point was mortality at 28 days. Study design was a prospective case series, and study setting was a 12 bed intensive care unit at a university hospital. A total of 24 consecutive patients with septic shock were included, with dysfunction of more than two organs. All patients were treated by HVCVVH with ultrafiltration rate between 40 ml x kg(-1) x hr(-1) and 60 ml x kg(-1) x hr(-1) for 96 hours. In all patients, the increase in hemodynamic parameters was statistically significant (p < 0.05), with a significant linear decrease in norepinephrine doses (p < 0.05). The predicted 28 day mortality by three different severity scores was more than 70%, and the mortality in the hemofiltration group was 46% (p < 0.075). In the present study of septic shock patients with organ dysfunction, the hemodynamic parameters increased regularly during treatment by HVCVVH. This study suggests a beneficial effect of HVCVVH on 28 day mortality (46% vs. 70%), and further studies with larger cohorts are required.
    ASAIO Journal 01/2004; 50(1):102-9. DOI:10.1097/01.MAT.0000104846.27116.EA · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sustained low-efficiency daily dialysis (SLEDD) is an increasingly popular renal replacement therapy for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. SLEDD has been previously reported to provide good solute control and haemodynamic stability. However, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is considered superior by many ICU practitioners, due first to the large amounts of convective clearance achieved and second to the ability to deliver treatment independently of nephrology services. We report on a program of sustained low-efficiency daily diafiltration (SLEDD-f) delivered autonomously by ICU nursing personnel, and benchmark solute clearance data with recently published reports that have provided dose-outcome relationships for renal replacement therapy in this population. SLEDD-f treatments were delivered using countercurrent dialysate flow at 200 ml/min and on-line haemofiltration at 100 ml/min for 8 h on a daily or at least alternate day basis. All aspects of SLEDD-f were managed by ICU nursing personnel. Clinical parameters, patient outcomes and solute levels were monitored. Kt/V, corrected equivalent renal urea clearance (EKRc) and theoretical Kt/V(B12) were calculated. Fifty-six SLEDD-f treatments in 24 critically ill acute renal failure patients were studied. There were no episodes of intradialytic hypotension or other complications. Observed hospital mortality was 46%, not significantly different from the expected mortality as determined from the APACHE II illness severity scoring system. Electrolyte control was excellent. Kt/V per completed treatment was 1.43+/-0.28 (0.96-2.0). Kt/V(B12) per completed treatment was 1.02+/-0.21 (0.6-1.38). EKRc for patients was 35.7+/-6.4 ml/min (25.0-48.2). SLEDD-f provides stable renal replacement therapy and good clinical outcomes. Logistic elements of SLEDD-f delivery by ICU nursing personnel are satisfactory. Small solute clearance is adequate by available standards for CRRT and intermittent haemodialysis, and larger solute clearance considerable. SLEDD-f is a viable alternative to CRRT in this setting.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 05/2004; 19(4):877-84. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfg625 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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