Geographic variation in the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and risk factors for transmission.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in the female general population, to define geographic variation in and heterosexual transmission of the virus.
The study included 10,963 women from 9 countries for whom information on sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive, sexual, and smoking behaviors were available. Antibodies against KSHV that encoded lytic antigen K8.1 and latent antigen ORF73 were determined.
The range of prevalence of KSHV (defined as detection of any antigen) was 3.81%-46.02%, with significant geographic variation noted. In Nigeria, the prevalence was 46.02%; in Colombia, 13.32%; in Costa Rica, 9.81%; in Argentina, 6.40%; in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 15.50%; in Hanoi, Vietnam, 11.26%; in Songkla, Thailand, 10%; in Lampang, Thailand, 8.63%; in Korea, 4.93%; and in Spain, 3.65%. The prevalence of KSHV slightly increased with increasing age among subjects in geographic areas where the prevalence of KSHV was high, such as Nigeria and Colombia, and it significantly decreased with increases in the educational level attained by subjects in those areas. KSHV was not statistically associated with age at first sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, number of children, patterns of oral contraceptive use, presence of cervical human papillomavirus DNA, or smoking status.
The study provides comparable estimates of KSHV prevalence in diverse cultural settings across 4 continents and provides evidence that sexual transmission of KSHV is not a major source of infection in the general population.
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ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the current knowledge pertaining to Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) epidemiology and transmission. Since the identification of KSHV twenty years ago, it is now known to be associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. Many studies have been conducted to understand its epidemiology and pathogenesis and their results clearly show that the worldwide distribution of KSHV is uneven. Some geographical areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, the Mediterranean region and the Xinjiang region of China, are endemic areas, but Western Europe and United States have a low prevalence in the general population. This makes it imperative to understand the risk factors associated with acquisition of infection. KSHV can be transmitted via sexual contact and non-sexual routes, such as transfusion of contaminated blood and tissues transplants, or via saliva contact. There is now a general consensus that salivary transmission is the main route of transmission, especially in children residing in endemic areas. Therefore, there is a need to better understand the sources of transmission to young children. Additionally, lack of animal models to study transmission, gold standard serological assay and the lack of emphasis on endemic KS research has hampered the efforts to further delineate KSHV transmission in order to design effective prevention strategies.Viruses 11/2014; 6(11):4178-4194. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have developed a human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) assay using the T1H6-DC-SIGN cell line. Infection of T1H6-DC-SIGN cells with HHV-8 induces expression of β-galactosidase, which was used to determine TCID50 levels. Validation of TCID50 values was performed by immunofluorescence assay of HHV-8 infection of immature dendritic cells at various TCID50 doses.Journal of clinical microbiology 06/2013; 51(6). · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) DNA is consistently found in all types of Kaposi's sarcoma, which is prevalent in immunocompromised patients. Patients with advanced lung carcinoma often showed immunologic abnormalities, and prevalence of HHV-8 infection is unclear. In this study, blood samples from 109 lung carcinoma patients and 109 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed for lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and for antibody, DNA, and genotype of HHV-8. Lung carcinoma patients had significantly lower lymphocyte and higher monocyte counts than healthy controls (p < 0.0001, both). HHV-8 seropositivity was more prevalent in lung carcinoma patients (41.3 %), particularly in male patients (50.8 %), than in controls (24.8 %) (p = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). The seropositivity was also significantly higher in male (50.8 %) than female patients (27.3 %, p = 0.01). Titers of HHV-8 antibody in patients also significantly exceeded those in controls (p = 0.004). Under a higher threshold (antibody titer ≥1:160) which is equivalent to that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, lung carcinoma patients still had higher HHV-8 seropositivity than controls (p = 0.006). Three patients with stage IV lung carcinoma were positive for HHV-8 DNA with K1 gene subtype C3, D1, and E, respectively; they had much lower lymphocyte counts (658 ± 132 µL) than patients positive for HHV-8 antibodies only (1,449 ± 873 µL). The study indicates that lung carcinoma patients, particularly males, have a high seroprevalence of HHV-8. HHV-8 DNA detected in the patients with advanced lung carcinoma may be a result of virus reactivation in the immunocompromised status.Medical Microbiology and Immunology 08/2014; · 2.43 Impact Factor