Geographic Variation in the Prevalence of Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and Risk Factors for Transmission

Institut Català d'Oncologia, and 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiologia y Salud Pública, Barcelona, Spain.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 05/2009; 199(10):1449-56. DOI: 10.1086/598523
Source: PubMed


The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in the female general population, to define geographic variation in and heterosexual transmission of the virus.
The study included 10,963 women from 9 countries for whom information on sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive, sexual, and smoking behaviors were available. Antibodies against KSHV that encoded lytic antigen K8.1 and latent antigen ORF73 were determined.
The range of prevalence of KSHV (defined as detection of any antigen) was 3.81%-46.02%, with significant geographic variation noted. In Nigeria, the prevalence was 46.02%; in Colombia, 13.32%; in Costa Rica, 9.81%; in Argentina, 6.40%; in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 15.50%; in Hanoi, Vietnam, 11.26%; in Songkla, Thailand, 10%; in Lampang, Thailand, 8.63%; in Korea, 4.93%; and in Spain, 3.65%. The prevalence of KSHV slightly increased with increasing age among subjects in geographic areas where the prevalence of KSHV was high, such as Nigeria and Colombia, and it significantly decreased with increases in the educational level attained by subjects in those areas. KSHV was not statistically associated with age at first sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, number of children, patterns of oral contraceptive use, presence of cervical human papillomavirus DNA, or smoking status.
The study provides comparable estimates of KSHV prevalence in diverse cultural settings across 4 continents and provides evidence that sexual transmission of KSHV is not a major source of infection in the general population.

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    • "The seroprevalence of HHV8 is >50% in high incidence zones in Africa and parts of the Amazon Basin, 5% to 20% in intermediate incidence zones in Mediterranean countries, and <5% in low incidence zones in North America, Northern Europe, and Asia.14 In Korea, the seroprevalence of HHV8 is 4.93% in the female general population15 and 3.5% in hospitalized children.16 In comparison, the seroprevalence of HHV8 is higher among immunocompromised people; it is 15% among solid organ transplant patients in the United States, and 30% among HIV-infected homosexual/bisexual men.17,18 "
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    ABSTRACT: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a human herpes virus 8 (HHV8)-positive large B-cell neoplasm that presents as an effusion with no detectable tumor in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection or other immune deficiencies. PEL is an aggressive neoplasm with a poor prognosis. PEL cells show diverse morphologies, ranging from immunoblastic or plasmablastic to anaplastic. The immunophenotype of PEL is distinct, but its lineage can be misdiagnosed if not assessed thoroughly. PEL cells usually express CD45, lack B- and T-cell-associated antigens, and characteristically express lymphocyte activation antigens and plasma cell-associated antigens. Diagnosis of PEL often requires the demonstration of a B-cell genotype. HHV8 must be detected in cells to diagnose PEL. In most cases, PEL cells also harbor the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Similar conditions associated with HHV8 but not effusion-based are called "extracavitary PELs." PELs should be differentiated from HHV8-negative, EBV-positive, body cavity-based lymphomas in patients with long-standing chronic inflammation; the latter can occur in tuberculous pleuritis, artificial pneumothorax, chronic liver disease and various other conditions. Despite their morphological similarity, these various lymphomas require different therapeutic strategies and have different prognostic implications. Correct diagnosis is essential to manage and predict the outcome of patients with PEL and related disorders.
    The Korean Journal of Pathology 04/2014; 48(2):81-90. DOI:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.2.81 · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    • "While our results should not be interpreted as proving the lack of KSHV transmission via sexual contact, they support conclusions reached in other studies that that sexual transmission of KSHV is not a major source of infection in the general population [20,25,26]. KSHV seropositivity varies substantially by geography at a global as well local level. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositivity is associated with sexual, environmental, and socioeconomic exposures. Whether these characteristics are independent risk factors is uncertain because of reliance on selected high-risk or hospital-based populations and incomplete adjustment for confounding. Therefore, we evaluated risk factors for KSHV seropositivity in a population-based study in Uganda using principal components analysis (PCA). Methods The study population comprised 2,681 individuals randomly selected from a nationally-representative population-based HIV/AIDS sero-behavioral survey conducted in 2004/05. Questionnaire and laboratory data (97 variables) were transformed into a smaller set of uncorrelated variables using PCA. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between components and KSHV seropositivity. Results Data were reduced to three principal components (PCs) labeled as Sexual behavioral, Socioeconomic, and Knowledge PCs. In crude analysis, KSHV seropositivity was associated with the Knowledge (ptrend = 0.012) and Socioeconomic components (ptrend = 0.0001), but not with the Sexual-behavioral component (ptrend = 0.066). KSHV seropositivity was associated with the Socioeconomic PC (ptrend = 0.037), but not with the Sexual-behavioral and Knowledge PCs, in the models including PCs, age, gender and geographic region. Conclusions Our results fit with the view that in Uganda socioeconomic characteristic may influence KSHV seropositivity. Conversely, the results fit with the interpretation that in Uganda sexual-behavioral characteristics, if relevant, contribute minimally.
    Infectious Agents and Cancer 01/2013; 8(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1750-9378-8-3 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    • "This virus is closely related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), murine gammaherpesvirus-68, and herpesvirus saimiri [2]. The prevalence of KSHV infection varies depending on the geographical location with highest levels observed in Africa, where it has been reported to be greater than 40% [3]. As KSHV displays several characteristics shared among other herpesviruses, its ability to switch between latent and lytic stages of infection is of particular concern. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the field of herpesvirus research, the exact molecular mechanism by which such viruses reactivate from latency remains elusive. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) primarily exists in a latent state, while only 1-3% of cells support lytic infection at any specific time. KSHV reactivation from latency is an exceedingly intricate process mediated by the integration of viral and cellular factors. Previously, our lab has described early growth response-1 (Egr-1) as an essential component for the KSHV reactivation process via its ability to mediate transcription of KSHV ORF50, the gene encoding for replication and transcription activator (RTA), a viral component known to control the switch from latent to lytic infection. In here, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that Egr-1 binds KSHV ORF50 promoter (ORF50P) in at least two different GC-rich binding domains. Expression profiles of cellular egr-1 and KSHV-encoded ORF50 follow a similar pattern during de novo KSHV infection. Over-expressing Egr-1, a signaling component downstream of Raf>MEK>ERK1/2, in KSHV-infected cells activates KSHV lytic replication. Through performing more physiologically relevant experiments, we analyzed the effect of a dietary supplement containing resveratrol on KSHV-infected cells. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate resveratrol to act in lowering ERK1/2 activity and expression of Egr-1 in KSHV-infected cells, resulting in the suppression of virus reactivation from latency. Taken together, these findings will undoubtedly contribute to future studies on not only combating KSHV related disease conditions, but also on other herpesviruses-induced pathogenesis.
    PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33364. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033364 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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