Geographic Variation in the Prevalence of Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and Risk Factors for Transmission
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in the female general population, to define geographic variation in and heterosexual transmission of the virus.
The study included 10,963 women from 9 countries for whom information on sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive, sexual, and smoking behaviors were available. Antibodies against KSHV that encoded lytic antigen K8.1 and latent antigen ORF73 were determined.
The range of prevalence of KSHV (defined as detection of any antigen) was 3.81%-46.02%, with significant geographic variation noted. In Nigeria, the prevalence was 46.02%; in Colombia, 13.32%; in Costa Rica, 9.81%; in Argentina, 6.40%; in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 15.50%; in Hanoi, Vietnam, 11.26%; in Songkla, Thailand, 10%; in Lampang, Thailand, 8.63%; in Korea, 4.93%; and in Spain, 3.65%. The prevalence of KSHV slightly increased with increasing age among subjects in geographic areas where the prevalence of KSHV was high, such as Nigeria and Colombia, and it significantly decreased with increases in the educational level attained by subjects in those areas. KSHV was not statistically associated with age at first sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, number of children, patterns of oral contraceptive use, presence of cervical human papillomavirus DNA, or smoking status.
The study provides comparable estimates of KSHV prevalence in diverse cultural settings across 4 continents and provides evidence that sexual transmission of KSHV is not a major source of infection in the general population.
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ABSTRACT: Illegal blood donation in the past decade has caused human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outbreaks in some rural areas in China. Other HIV-associated virus infections, such as those caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), in such areas are still not well defined. In order to explore HHV8 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence and potential risk factors in such areas, a cross-sectional study with 305 HIV-positive and 315 HIV-negative subjects recruited from a rural county in Shanxi province was conducted, in which illegal blood collection was reported. Interview questionnaires and serum testing were carried out with these participants. HCV and HHV8 seroprevalence were found to be higher in the HIV-positive than in the HIV-negative group (76.4% vs. 2.5% and 15.4% vs. 4.8%, respectively), whereas the difference in HBV seroprevalence was not significant. Co-infection with HCV and HHV8 was also more prevalent in the HIV-positive group. HIV status (OR 2.71; 95% CI 1.16-6.30) and HBV status (OR 2.56; 95% CI 1.14-5.75) were independently associated with HHV8 infection. HIV status (OR 23.03; 95% CI 9.95-53.27) and blood/plasma selling history (OR 14.57; 95% CI 7.49-28.23) were strongly associated with HCV infection. These findings demonstrate that both HHV8 and HCV infections are prevalent in this community. HIV infection is an important risk factor for both HHV8 and HCV infection. HBV infection is associated with HHV8 infection but not with HCV infection. It is possible that HHV8 and hepatitis B virus, but not HCV, have similar modes of transmission in this population.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 01/2010; 189. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03287.x · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Factors previously associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) transmission in Africa include sexual, familial, and proximity to river water. We measured the seroprevalence of KSHV in relation to HIV, syphilis, and demographic factors among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in the Gauteng province of South Africa. We tested for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens in 1740 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics who contributed blood to the "National HIV and Syphilis Sero-Prevalence Survey - South Africa, 2001". Information on HIV and syphilis serology, age, education, residential area, gravidity, and parity was anonymously linked to evaluate risk factors for KSHV seropositivity. Clinics were grouped by municipality regions and their proximity to the two main river catchments defined. KSHV seropositivity (reactive to either lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73) was nearly twice that of HIV (44.6% vs. 23.1%). HIV and syphilis seropositivity was 12.7% and 14.9% in women without KSHV, and 36.1% and 19.9% respectively in those with KSHV. Women who are KSHV seropositive were 4 times more likely to be HIV positive than those who were KSHV seronegative (AOR 4.1 95%CI: 3.4 - 5.7). Although, women with HIV infection were more likely to be syphilis seropositive (AOR 1.8 95%CI: 1.3 - 2.4), no association between KSHV and syphilis seropositivity was observed. Those with higher levels of education had lower levels of KSHV seropositivity compared to those with lower education levels. KSHV seropositivity showed a heterogeneous pattern of prevalence in some localities. The association between KSHV and HIV seropositivity and a lack of common association with syphilis, suggests that KSHV transmission may involve geographical and cultural factors other than sexual transmission.Infectious Agents and Cancer 08/2010; 5:14. DOI:10.1186/1750-9378-5-14 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the MDM2 promoter (SNP309; rs2279744) causes elevated transcription of this major negative regulator of p53 in several cancer types. We investigated MDM2 SNP309 and CDKN1A (p21/Waf1/Cip1) codon 31 (rs1801270) polymorphisms in 86 cases of cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) from African and Caucasian patients, and 210 healthy controls. A significant increase of the MDM2 SNP309 T/G genotype was observed among classic KS cases (odds ratio 2.38, 95% confidence interval 1.0-5.5). Frequencies of CDKN1A codon 31 genotypes were not significantly different between cases and controls. The results suggest that the MDM2 SNP309 G allele may act as a susceptibility gene for the development of classic KS in Caucasian patients.Biomarkers 10/2010; 16(1):42-50. DOI:10.3109/1354750X.2010.525664 · 2.52 Impact Factor