Immunohistochemical evaluation of FLI-1 in acute lymphoblastic lymphoma (ALL): A potential diagnostic pitfall
Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.01). 05/2009; 17(5):409-12. DOI: 10.1097/PAI.0b013e3181972b6d
Cases of CD45-negative acute lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (ALL) immunoreactive for CD99 and Friend Leukemia Integration-1 (FLI-1) can occur and may lead to a misdiagnosis of Ewing sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor with critical clinical treatment management implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate a panel of antibodies that would allow greater diagnostic accuracy of ALL and evaluate the frequency of FLI-1 immunoreactivity in a series of ALL cases and an expanded series of T-cell lymphoma subtypes. Immunoreactivity for CD3 was seen in 12/20 (60%), CD20 in 5/20 (25%), CD43 in 19/20(95%), CD45 in 15/20(75%), CD99 in 15/20 (75%), FLI-1, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) in 17/20 (85%) cases. Two cases negative for leukocyte common antigen (LCA), CD20, and CD3 were positive for FLI-1, CD99, TdT, and CD43. Two other LCA-negative cases were positive for CD99 but negative for FLI-1. The majority of cases showed immunoreactivity for CD43 and/or TdT. Therefore, CD43 and/or TdT should be included in the immunohistochemical evaluation of small round blue cell tumors. Absence of immunoreactivity for LCA does not exclude ALL and immunoreactivity of FLI-1 is not restricted to Ewing sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor. We also report FLI-1 expression in an expanded series of 75 cases of T-cell lymphoma and found high expression in anaplastic large cell lymphoma and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.
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ABSTRACT: The work presents the analysis of the evaluation of the maximum goodput achievable in a IEEE 802.11 b basic set service (BSS) performed by means of theoretical, simulative and experimental approaches. With respect to previous works on this topic, the presented study focuses on the comparison of the results obtained using the different approaches, highlighting their convergence in the simple case of ideal radio channel. The assumption of an ideal channel, although not always verified in real scenarios, is useful to evaluate the upper bound of the network capacity offered by this technology in absence of losses and performance degradations due to factors not directly related to the protocol. Furthermore, the adopted simulation tool has been preventively validated versus theoretical results under varying working conditions and for different physical layers. It is noteworthy that the results obtained by each one of the three approaches are in accordance with those already presented in literature, although they are derived by means of different tools, thus further confirming the accuracy of such results.Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symposium. NETWORKS 2004, 11th International; 07/2004
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ABSTRACT: We saw in consultation a biopsy specimen from a 6-year old girl with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The tumor arose in soft tissue of the neck, and diagnostic tissue was obtained by core needle biopsy. Histologically, the neoplasm was cellular without pattern. Immunohistochemical workup with a large panel of antibodies at another institution showed immunoreactivity for NB84 and neuron specific enolase (dim). Antibodies specific for CD3, CD20, and CD45/LCA were negative; CD30 or ALK were not assessed. Electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic structures thought to be neurosecretory granules. The neoplasm was interpreted initially as a neuroblastoma. At the time of our review, we considered the possibility of ALCL. Immunohistochemical analysis for CD30 showed bright, uniform expression and ALK was positive in a nuclear and cytoplasmic pattern, confirming the diagnosis of ALK+ ALCL. The purpose of this review is to discuss ALK+ ALCL and many of the other entities included under the rubric of small round blue cell tumor, with a focus on tumors that occur in children.Annals of diagnostic pathology 12/2009; 13(6):413-27. DOI:10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2009.09.002 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Small cell osteosarcoma and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma are 2 primary bone tumors with a small round blue cell component, which can mimic the appearance of Ewing sarcoma. Distinguishing these tumors from each other on biopsy material is important clinically, as optimal therapy differs according to the tumor type. However, separating these entities on morphology alone can be challenging. FLI-1 has been described to be a useful marker for Ewing sarcoma, particularly when hematolymphoid markers are negative. In small cell osteosarcoma and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, the FLI-1 staining pattern has not been adequately characterized. Using a monoclonal FLI-1 antibody, nuclear immunoreactivity in tumor cells was evaluated in 10 small cell osteosarcomas, 10 mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, and 8 Ewing sarcomas, together with a number of other small, round, blue cell tumors. None of the small cell osteosarcomas or mesenchymal chondrosarcomas exhibited FLI-1 staining in the tumor cells, in contrast to the positive nuclear FLI-1 staining in the stromal endothelial cells. In comparison, 6 of the 8 Ewing sarcomas showed moderate-to-strong nuclear FLI-1 staining of the tumor cells in addition to strong staining of the stromal endothelial cell nuclei. With the exception of lymphoblastic lymphomas, FLI-1 positivity was not seen in the other small round blue cell tumors examined. These findings show that, in contrast to Ewing sarcoma, small cell osteosarcoma and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma lack FLI-1 immunoreactivity. FLI-1 is therefore useful in the differential diagnosis of small round blue cell tumors of the bone.Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry 11/2010; 19(3):233-8. DOI:10.1097/PAI.0b013e3181fd6697 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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