Pattern recognition scavenger receptor SRA/CD204 down-regulates Toll-like receptor 4 signaling-dependent CD8 T-cell activation
ABSTRACT Class A scavenger receptor (SRA), also known as CD204, has been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the pattern recognition of pathogen infection. However, its role in adaptive immune responses has not been well defined. In this study, we report that the lack of SRA/CD204 promotes Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 agonist-augmented tumor-protective immunity, which is associated with enhanced activation of CD8(+) effector T cell and improved inhibition of tumor growth. Dendritic cells (DCs) deficient in SRA/CD204 display more effective immunostimulatory activities upon TLR4 engagement than those from wild-type counterparts. Silencing of SRA/CD204 by RNA interference improves the ability of DCs to prime antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, suggesting that antigen-presenting cells, for example, DCs, play a major role in SRA/CD204-mediated immune modulation. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for SRA/CD204, a non-TLR pattern recognition receptor, as a physiologic negative regulator of TLR4-mediated immune consequences, which has important clinical implications for development of TLR-targeted immunotherapeutic intervention.
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ABSTRACT: Co-exposure to cigarette smoke and ethanol generates malondialdehyde and acetaldehyde, which can subsequently lead to the formation of aldehyde-adducted proteins. We have previously shown that exposure of bronchial epithelial cells to malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducted protein increases protein kinase C (PKC) activity and proinflammatory cytokine release. A specific ligand to scavenger receptor A (SRA), fucoidan, blocks this effect. We hypothesized that MAA-adducted protein binds to bronchial epithelial cells via SRA. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to MAA-adducted protein (either bovine serum albumin [BSA-MAA] or surfactant protein D [SPD-MAA]) and SRA examined using confocal microscopy, fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS), and immunoprecipitation. Differentiated mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) cultured by air-liquid interface were assayed for MAA-stimulated PKC activity and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) release. Specific cell surface membrane dye co-localized with upregulated SRA after exposure to MAA for 3–7 min and subsided by 20 min. Likewise, MAA-adducted protein co-localized to SRA from 3–7 min with a subsequent internalization of MAA by 10 min. These results were confirmed using FACS analysis and revealed a reduced mean fluorescence of SRA after 3 min. Furthermore, increased amounts of MAA-adducted protein could be detected by Western blot in immunoprecipitated SRA samples after 3 min treatment with MAA. MAA stimulated PKCε-mediated KC release in wild type, but not SRA knockout mice. These data demonstrate that aldehyde-adducted proteins in the lungs rapidly bind to SRA and internalize this receptor prior to the MAA-adducted protein stimulation of PKC-dependent inflammatory cytokine release in airway epithelium.Alcohol 08/2014; 48(5). DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2014.02.005 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The innate immune response is involved in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Recent evidence suggests that scavenger receptors have a role in the induction of innate immunity. In this study, we examined the role of scavenger receptor A (SR-A) in focal cerebral I/R injury. Both SR-A(-/-) mice (n=10) and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice (n=9) were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia (60 minutes), followed by reperfusion (for 24 hours). Infarct size was determined by TTC (triphenyltetrazolium chloride) staining. The morphology of neurons in the brain sections was examined by Nissl's staining. Activation of intracellular signaling was analyzed by western blot. Cerebral infarct size in SR-A(-/-) mice was significantly reduced by 63.9% compared with WT mice after cerebral I/R. In SR-A(-/-) mice, there was less neuronal damage in the hippocampus compared with WT mice. Levels of FasL, Fas, FADD, caspase-3 activity, and terminal deoynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling-positive apoptotic cells were significantly increased in WT mice after cerebral I/R, but not in SR-A(-/-) mice. Cerebral I/R increased nuclear factor-κB activation in WT mice, but not in SR-A(-/-) mice. These data suggest that SR-A has a central role in cerebral I/R injury and that suppression of SR-A may be a useful approach for ameliorating brain injury in stroke patients.Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 12/2010; 30(12):1972-81. DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.59 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a potent trigger for inflammatory immune responses. Without tight regulation their activation could lead to pathology, so it is imperative to extend our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that govern TLR expression and function. One family of immunoregulatory proteins which can provide a balancing effect on TLR activity are the Leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LILRs), which act as innate immune receptors for self-proteins. Here we describe the LILR family, their inhibitory effect on TLR activity in cells of the monocytic lineage, their signalling pathway, and their antimicrobial effects during bacterial infection. Agents have already been identified which enhances or inhibits LILR activity raising the future possibility that modulation of LILR function could be used as a means to modulate TLR activity.Mediators of Inflammation 06/2010; 2010:536478. DOI:10.1155/2010/536478 · 2.42 Impact Factor