Self-regulation and Rapid Weight Gain in Children From Age 3 to 12 Years
ABSTRACT To examine the extent to which self-regulatory capacities, measured behaviorally at ages 3 and 5 years, were linked to rapid weight gain in children from age 3 to 12 years. Self-regulation failure, or the inability to control an impulse or behavior, has been implicated as a mechanism in the development of overweight.
Prospective longitudinal cohort study.
Home and laboratory-based settings in 10 sites across the United States.
Data were drawn from 1061 children as part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Main Exposure Self-regulatory capacity was measured in 2 behavioral protocols; children participated in a self-control procedure at age 3 years and a delay of gratification procedure at age 5 years.
Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated based on measured BMI at 6 points.
Mixed-modeling analyses were used to examine differences in the rate of weight gain over time based on the extent to which children exhibited the ability to self-regulate in the behavioral procedures. Compared with children who showed high self-regulation in both behavioral protocols at ages 3 and 5 years, children who exhibited a compromised ability to self-regulate had the highest BMI z scores at each point and the most rapid gains in BMI z scores over the 9-year period. Effects of pubertal status were also noted for girls.
Self-regulation failure in early childhood may predispose children to excessive weight gain through early adolescence.
- SourceAvailable from: Ian M Paul
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- "Higher levels of infant negative reactivity, particularly distress to limitations, predict a greater weight status or weight gain (Darlington & Wright 2006; Anzman & Birch 2009), suggesting that a highly negative temperament may be a risk factor for obesity. Better selfregulation abilities, including the ability to delay gratification, predict a lower weight status (Francis & Susman 2009; Graziano et al. 2010), suggesting that self-regulation may be a protective factor. Early negativity may lead individuals to become obese if highly negative infants are fed more often as an attempt to soothe their distress (Anzman-Frasca et al. 2012a; Carey 1985; Darlington & Wright 2006; Stifter et al. 2011). "
ABSTRACT: A consideration of potential moderators can highlight intervention effects that are attenuated when investigating aggregate results. Differential susceptibility is one type of interaction, where susceptible individuals have poorer outcomes in negative environments and better outcomes in positive environments, compared to less susceptible individuals, who have moderate outcomes regardless of environment. In the current study, we provide rationale for investigating this type of interaction in the context of a behavioral childhood obesity preventive intervention and test whether infant negativity moderated intervention effects on infant self-regulation and weight gain and on two aspects of mothers' parenting competence: parenting self-efficacy and parenting satisfaction. Results showed that infants' negative temperament at 3 weeks moderated intervention effects on some, but not all, outcomes. The intervention led to greater parenting satisfaction in mothers with highly negative infants but did not affect parenting satisfaction in mothers with less negative infants, consistent with a model of differential susceptibility. There was also a trend toward less weight gain in highly negative intervention group infants. In contrast, there was a main effect of the intervention on infant self-regulation at 1 year, such that the intervention group had higher observed self-regulation, across levels of infant negativity. Results support the importance of incorporating tests of moderation into evaluations of obesity interventions and also illustrate that individuals may be differentially susceptible to environmental effects on some outcomes but not others.Prevention Science 07/2013; 15(5). DOI:10.1007/s11121-013-0408-4 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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- "Despite the great variability in assessment methods, the studies together demonstrate an association between higher childhood BMIs for age and poorer performance on inhibitory control tasks        . Additionally, some studies demonstrated the predictive value of inhibitory control at a young age: poorer performance at a young age (2–7 years) predicted a higher BMI at a later age (5.5–15 years) (refer to Table 1). "
ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between the development of executive function (EF) and obesity in children and adolescents. We reviewed 1,065 unique abstracts: 31 from PubMed, 87 from Google Scholar, 16 from Science Direct, and 931 from PsycINFO. Of those abstracts, 28 met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. From the articles reviewed, an additional 3 articles were added from article references (N = 31). Twenty-three studies pertained to EF (2 also studied the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices (OFCs); 6 also studied cognitive function), five studied the relationship between obesity and prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, and three evaluated cognitive function and obesity. Inhibitory control was most often studied in both childhood (76.9%) and adolescent (72.7%) studies, and obese children performed significantly worse (P < 0.05) than healthy weight controls on various tasks measuring this EF domain. Although 27.3% of adolescent studies measured mental flexibility, no childhood studies examined this EF domain. Adolescents with higher BMI had a strong association with neurostructural deficits evident in the OFC. Future research should be longitudinal and use a uniform method of EF measurement to better establish causality between EF and obesity and consequently direct future intervention strategies.Journal of obesity 02/2013; 2013:820956. DOI:10.1155/2013/820956
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- "Although previous prevention and intervention programs were mainly focused on self-control with respect to eating and exercise, few approaches emphasize the enhancement of basic cognitive functions such as self-regulation to restore and maintain a healthy diet (Whitaker & Gooze, 2009). Self-regulation failure, or the inability to control an impulse or behavior, however, has been implicated as a basic mechanism of weight gain (Francis & Susman, 2009). Our study aimed to find some evidence for the hypothesis that an effective therapy based on a self-management concept (Kanfer et al., 2006) does not only have a positive impact on weight reduction but also is accompanied by enhancement of inhibitory control both in general, and more specifically with regard to food-related information processing in adolescents. "
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the role of self-regulation competencies in general and specifically in a food-related context for the control of body weight in a three-year weight loss program. The sample consisted of 30 male and female adolescents (age range: 11-18 years) who participated in a three-year therapy program for severe obesity (mean BMI at the beginning of the intervention was 33.6). Assessment of self-regulation competencies was conducted at three different stages (1(st)-3(rd) graduation/class year). Therefore, three independent groups of adolescents (N = 10) at these different stages were tested (initial-to final-stage of therapy). At the time of testing the BMI of these groups significantly differed from 38.8 to 28.7. Analyses of covariance were performed to determine whether the adolescents also differed in self-regulation skills like "resistance to temptation" and food-related Stroop interference along with ameliorating their energy-balance regulation. In addition to the main effects of age and body mass index, adolescents further displayed significant improvements of executive functions with respect to resistance to temptation and inhibition. Interventions aimed at enhancing energy-balance regulation in adolescents may further benefit from efforts to facilitate executive functions such as self-regulation and food-related cognitive inhibition.Journal of Behavioural Addictions 06/2012; 1(2):68-73. DOI:10.1556/JBA.1.2012.2.4