El error médico. Eventos adversos

ABSTRACT Summary At the present time, care the patients safety during across the process of health is a priority target and determine the urgent necessity, to guarantee the satisfaction of their health needs, on best conditions as possible as it is, without complications for adverse events occurring in the medical attention. This paper purpose definition of different concepts like medical error, medical criteria, adverse and sentinel event, in order to define these concepts. Also try to show the sequence of events for a correct or incorrect medical decision, the consequent mistake and the possibility to produce an adverse event, with patient's damage. An important goal is that the medical practice is immersing in a biological paradigm, define like unpredictable, suitable, reactive and creative; very different to the exact science that has a predictable and structured paradigm, supported in mathematical rules. In the medical practice, each patient is an inedited situation and required all the knowledge, skills and experience in order to satisfy specific health needs, particularly in critical moments. The way for protect the occurrence of medical error include the clinical practices guidelines, evidence based medicine, the maintenance of professional competences by the continuous training, the close medical-patient relationship, integral approach of the illness and scrupulous data at the clinical record. In consequence, very often medical errors produce adverse events with damage of patients, or sentinel events with serious consequences of heath, integrity or patient's life. Is important to said that the adverse events could be appear even without a medical error, just for failures in structural and systems issues, including resources and it's maintaining, organizational variables, communication, human resources, training programs, process without standardization, failures an supervision or control phases. This paper shows the current adverse and sentinels events, distinguish between the possibility of its measurement with good and standardized register systems.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: International reports show that only 5 % of adversity effects are notified; which is due to inherent factors related to health staff, such as being afraid to be punished, being exposed to the professional praxis, unknowing the notification program and the lack of reinformation after the first notification, among others. Objective: To identify among nursing staff their knowledge of the program: VENCER, or "system of surveillance for sentinel events and risks" and determine factors related in the notification of events. Methodology: Transversal study done in 226 nurses selected through probabilistic sampling, by conglomerates. An instrument was elaborated with 62 items, and validated with Cronbach's alfa, obtaining a level of confidence of 0.73. For the analysis, the software SPSS V14 was utilized, applying descriptive statistics. Results: Average age of nursing staff was 38 years old, 96 % of them female, 51 % professional nurses, 21 % specialized nurses, and 22 % with level of baccalaureate degree. Conclusions: It is imperative the difussions of the program VENCER to all the operative personnel according to guarantee the security to the patient in all hospital units.
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    ABSTRACT: The literature is reviewed about the perception and attitude of physicians and patients in relation to medical errors, specially in the context of public health service. The actual tendency is to consider them as part of the medical process with a systemic approach, where monitoring and prompt recognition is important in enhancing the quality and security of the hospitalized patients. In ethics, the new paradigm is to inform medical errors. Eventhough legally it is not clear, there ha ve been international advances in this topic. Some recommendations are described to confront these situations with patients and understand their reactions. In the future, more transparency is expected.
    Revista chilena de pediatría 06/2008; 79(3):319-326.
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    ABSTRACT: La seguridad del paciente es un tema de creciente interés dentro de la atención sanitaria, y al hablar de ella dentro de los servicios de salud o al interior de la academia, se menciona la influencia de conceptos de las ciencias de la seguridad industrial, de manera inespecífica, usados en actividades de alto riesgo como la de transporte aéreo, entre otras. Pero la realidad es, que muchos de esos conceptos no tienen la suficiente adaptación en la práctica; en primera instancia, puede ser por desconocimiento de los conceptos técnicos que tienen los involucrados en la prestación de servicios de salud, debido a que el problema no se ha abordado desde una amplia perspectiva, la cual puede requerir la mirada interdisciplinaria y transdisciplinaria desde diversas disciplinas del conocimiento. Con el objeto de reflexionar sobre el problema anteriormente planteado, se realizará una aproximación al problema desde varias puntos de vista: 1) el de la ciencias económicas; 2) el papel de la salud y seguridad en el trabajo y su influencia en la seguridad del paciente y 3) la visión de los conceptos desde la ciencias jurídicas por las implicaciones legales que pueden generar los eventos adversos.
    Revista médica de Risaralda. 12/2013; 19(3):2.


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