The propeptide of the metalloprotease of Listeria monocytogenes controls compartmentalization of the zymogen during intracellular infection.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401, USA.
Journal of bacteriology (Impact Factor: 2.69). 05/2009; 191(11):3594-603. DOI: 10.1128/JB.01168-08
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Integral to the virulence of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is its metalloprotease (Mpl). Mpl regulates the activity and compartmentalization of the bacterial broad-range phospholipase C (PC-PLC). Mpl is secreted as a proprotein that undergoes intramolecular autocatalysis to release its catalytic domain. In related proteases, the propeptide serves as a folding catalyst and can act either in cis or in trans. Propeptides can also influence protein compartmentalization and intracellular trafficking or decrease folding kinetics. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of the Mpl propeptide by monitoring the behavior of Mpl synthesized in the absence of its propeptide (MplDeltapro) and of two Mpl single-site mutants with unstable propeptides: Mpl(H75V) and Mpl(H95L). We observed that all three Mpl mutants mediate PC-PLC activation when bacteria are grown on semisolid medium, but to a lesser extent than wild-type Mpl, indicating that, although not essential, the propeptide enhances the production of active Mpl. However, the mutant proteins were not functional in infected cells, as determined by monitoring PC-PLC maturation and compartmentalization. This defect could not be rescued by providing the propeptide in trans to the mplDeltapro mutant. We tested the compartmentalization of Mpl during intracellular infection and observed that the mutant Mpl species were aberrantly secreted in the cytosol of infected cells. These data indicated that the propeptide of Mpl serves to maintain bacterium-associated Mpl and that this localization is essential to the function of Mpl during intracellular infection.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Arginine-specific (RgpB and RgpA) and lysine-specific (Kgp) gingipains are secretory cysteine proteinases of Porphyromonas gingivalis that act as important virulence factors for the organism. They are translated as zymogens with both N- and C-terminal extensions, which are proteolytically cleaved during secretion. In this report, we describe and characterize inhibition of the gingipains by their N-terminal prodomains to maintain latency during their export through the cellular compartments. METHODS: Recombinant forms of various prodomains (PD) were analyzed for their interaction with mature gingipains. The kinetics of their inhibition of proteolytic activity along with the formation of stable inhibitory complexes with native gingipains was studied by gel filtration, native PAGE and substrate hydrolysis. RESULTS: PDRgpB and PDRgpA formed tight complexes with arginine-specific gingipains (Ki in the range from 6.2 nM to 0.85 nM). In contrast, PDKgp showed no inhibitory activity. A conserved Arg-102 residue in PDRgpB and PDRgpA was recognized as the P1 residue. Mutation of Arg-102 to Lys reduced inhibitory potency of PDRgpB by one order of magnitude while its substitutions with Ala, Gln or Gly totally abolished the PD inhibitory activity. Covalent modification of the catalytic cysteine with tosyl-L-Lys-chloromethylketone (TLCK) or H-D-Phe-Arg-chloromethylketone did not affect formation of the stable complex. CONCLUSION: Latency of arginine-specific progingipains is efficiently exerted by N-terminal prodomains thus protecting the periplasm from potentially damaging effect of prematurely activated gingipains. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Blocking progingipain activation may offer an attractive strategy to attenuate P. gingivalis pathogenicity.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2013; 1830(8). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.04.005 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In monoderm (single-membrane) Gram-positive bacteria, the majority of secreted proteins are first translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane into the inner wall zone. For a subset of these proteins, final destination is within the cell envelope as either membrane-anchored or cell wall-anchored proteins, whereas another subset of proteins is destined to be transported across the cell wall into the extracellular milieu. Although the cell wall is a porous structure, there is evidence that, for some proteins, transport is a regulated process. This review aims at describing what is known about the mechanisms that regulate the transport of proteins across the cell wall of monoderm Gram-positive bacteria.
    Molecular Microbiology 04/2012; 84(3):405-13. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08040.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PrsA2 is a conserved posttranslocation chaperone and a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) that contributes to the virulence of the Gram-positive intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. One of the phenotypes associated with a prsA2 mutant is decreased activity of the broad-range phospholipase C (PC-PLC). PC-PLC is made as a proenzyme whose maturation is mediated by a metalloprotease (Mpl). The proforms of PC-PLC and Mpl accumulate at the membrane-cell wall interface until a decrease in pH triggers their maturation and rapid secretion into the host cell. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which PrsA2 regulates the activity of PC-PLC. We observed that in the absence of PrsA2, the proenzymes are secreted at physiological pH and do not mature upon a decrease in pH. The sensitivity of the prsA2 mutant to cell wall hydrolases was modified. However, no apparent changes in cell wall porosity were detected. Interestingly, synthesis of PC-PLC in the absence of its propeptide lead to the secretion of a fully active enzyme in the cytosol of host cells independent of PrsA2, indicating that neither the propeptide of PC-PLC nor PrsA2 is required for native folding of the catalytic domain, although both influence secretion of the enzyme. Taken together, these results suggest that PrsA2 regulates compartmentalization of Mpl and PC-PLC, possibly by influencing cell wall properties and interacting with the PC-PLC propeptide. Moreover, the ability of these proproteins to respond to a decrease in pH during intracellular growth depends on their localization at the membrane-cell wall interface.
    Journal of bacteriology 09/2011; 193(21):5961-70. DOI:10.1128/JB.05307-11 · 2.69 Impact Factor


Available from