Targeted deletion of the genes encoding NTH1 and NEIL1 DNA N-glycosylases reveals the existence of novel carcinogenic oxidative damage to DNA.
ABSTRACT We have generated a strain of mice lacking two DNA N-glycosylases of base excision repair (BER), NTH1 and NEIL1, homologs of bacterial Nth (endonuclease three) and Nei (endonuclease eight). Although these enzymes remove several oxidized bases from DNA, they do not remove the well-known carcinogenic oxidation product of guanine: 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-OH-Gua), which is removed by another DNA N-glycosylase, OGG1. The Nth1-/-Neil1-/- mice developed pulmonary and hepatocellular tumors in much higher incidence than either of the single knockouts, Nth1-/- and Neil1-/-. The pulmonary tumors contained, exclusively, activating GGT-->GAT transitions in codon 12 of K-ras of their DNA. Such transitions contrast sharply with the activating GGT-->GTT transversions in codon 12 of K-ras of the pathologically similar pulmonary tumors, which arose in mice lacking OGG1 and a second DNA N-glycosylase, MUTY. To characterize the biochemical phenotype of the knockout mice, the content of oxidative DNA base damage was analyzed from three tissues isolated from control, single and double knockout mice. The content of 8-OH-Gua was indistinguishable among all genotypes. In contrast, the content of 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyAde) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua) derived from adenine and guanine, respectively, were increased in some but not all tissues of Neil1-/- and Neil1-/-Nth1-/- mice. The high incidence of tumors in our Nth1-/-Neil1-/- mice together with the nature of the activating mutation in the K-ras gene of their pulmonary tumors, reveal for the first time, the existence of mutagenic and carcinogenic oxidative damage to DNA which is not 8-OH-Gua.
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ABSTRACT: Basal levels of endogenously generated oxidative DNA modifications such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) are present in apparently all mammalian cells, but their relevance for the generation of spontaneous cancers remains to be established. Both the 8-oxoG levels and the resulting spontaneous mutations are increased in the livers of Csb(m/m)/Ogg1(-/-) mice, which are deficient in the repair of 8-oxoG. In order to determine the consequences of these additional oxidative DNA modifications and mutations and thus assess the tumor initiating potency of this type of endogenous DNA damage, we treated Csb(m/m)/Ogg1(-/-) mice and repair-proficient controls with the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643 (0.025% ad libitum), a potent inducer of liver cell proliferation. The treatment did not generate any additional oxidative DNA damage; the elevated levels of 8-oxoG in the Csb(m/m)/Ogg1(-/-) mice even decreased. Also, the spontaneous mutation frequencies observed in the lacI gene of BigBlue Csb(m/m)/Ogg1(-/-) mice, which were approximately 3-fold higher than in the repair-proficient mice, declined by 39% under the treatment, whereas the frequencies in the livers of the repair-proficient animals remained unchanged. Preneoplastic lesions (staining positive or negative for glucose-6-phoshatase) developed in the livers of both wild-type and Csb(m/m)/Ogg1(-/-) mice after 30 weeks. Both the numbers and the total volumes of the lesions were approximately 6-fold higher in the repair-deficient mice than in the wild-type mice. The results indicate that spontaneous mutations generated from endogenous oxidative DNA base damage efficiently translate into increased tumorigenesis when cell proliferation is stimulated.Cancer Research 07/2007; 67(11):5156-61. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), ring-opened purines (formamidopyrimidines or Fapys), and other oxidized DNA base lesions generated by reactive oxygen species are often mutagenic and toxic, and have been implicated in the etiology of many diseases, including cancer, and in aging. Repair of these lesions in all organisms occurs primarily via the DNA base excision repair pathway, initiated with their excision by DNA glycosylase/AP lyases, which are of two classes. One class utilizes an internal Lys residue as the active site nucleophile, and includes Escherichia coli Nth and both known mammalian DNA glycosylase/AP lyases, namely, OGG1 and NTH1. E. coli MutM and its paralog Nei, which comprise the second class, use N-terminal Pro as the active site. Here, we report the presence of two human orthologs of E. coli mutM nei genes in the human genome database, and characterize one of their products. Based on the substrate preference, we have named it NEH1 (Nei homolog). The 44-kDa, wild-type recombinant NEH1, purified to homogeneity from E. coli, excises Fapys from damaged DNA, and oxidized pyrimidines and 8-oxoG from oligodeoxynucleotides. Inactivation of the enzyme because of either deletion of N-terminal Pro or Histag fusion at the N terminus supports the role of N-terminal Pro as its active site. The tissue-specific levels of NEH1 and OGG1 mRNAs are distinct, and S phase-specific increase in NEH1 at both RNA and protein levels suggests that NEH1 is involved in replication-associated repair of oxidized bases.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2002; 99(6):3523-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and the need to develop better diagnostic techniques and therapies is urgent. Mouse models have been utilized for studying carcinogenesis of human lung cancers, and many of the major genetic alterations detected in human lung cancers have also been identified in mouse lung tumors. The importance of mouse models for understanding human lung carcinogenic processes and in developing early diagnostic techniques, preventive measures and therapies cannot be overstated. In this report, the major known molecular alterations in lung tumorigenesis of mice are reviewed and compared to those in humans.Toxicologic Pathology 02/2007; 35(1):75-80. · 2.06 Impact Factor