Inferential confusion, obsessive beliefs, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a replication and extension.
ABSTRACT This study replicated and extended previous research regarding utility of an inference-based approach (IBA) to the study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The IBA is a model for the development of OCD symptoms through false reasoning. One of its key features is inferential confusion-a form of processing information in which an individual accepts a remote possibility based only on subjective evidence. In a nonclinical sample, this study examined the specificity of relations between the expanded Inferential Confusion Questionnaire (ICQ-EV) and OC symptoms. Results were that the ICQ-EV significantly predicted OC symptoms after controlling for general distress, anxiety, and depression. This finding supports the unique association between inferential confusion and OCD. Further, the ICQ-EV was a stronger predictor of certain OC symptoms than scales from the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire, which itself has shown strong relations with OC symptoms. Thus, both inference-based and cognitive appraisal models appear useful for understanding OCD.
- SourceAvailable from: Damiaan Denys[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: No study has reported yet on the prevalence of both comorbid DSM-IV axis I and personality disorders in a large cohort of OCD patients, and little is known about differences in clinical characteristics between OCD patients with and without comorbid symptoms. To examine the cross-sectional prevalence of comorbid DSM-IV axis I, and personality disorders in a population of patients with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: 420 outpatients with OCD were evaluated for comorbid pathology, demographic, and clinical characteristics. Forty-six percent of the patients were diagnosed with a comorbid disorder. Twenty-seven percent met the criteria for at least one comorbid axis I disorder, 15.6 percent for a comorbid personality disorder, and 20.4 percent for both a comorbid axis I disorder and a personality disorder. A limitation of the current study is that the sample was drawn from a psychiatric department specialised in anxiety disorders, which might have underestimated the rate of comorbid diagnoses. Comorbid diagnoses occur less frequently than would be expected on the basis of comparable comorbidity studies in OCD. Associated axis I comorbidity did not affect clinical severity of OCD, but was related to higher levels of depression and anxiety, whereas axis II comorbidity impaired to a higher extent the overall functioning.Journal of Affective Disorders 07/2004; 80(2-3):155-62. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is evidence that nonverbal memory problems in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are mediated by impaired strategic processing. Although many studies have found verbal memory to be normal in OCD, these studies did not use tests designed to stress organizational strategies. This study examined verbal and nonverbal memory performance in 33 OCD patients and 30 normal control participants with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and the California Verbal Learning Test. OCD patients were impaired on verbal and nonverbal measures of organizational strategy and free recall. Multiple regression modeling indicated that free recall problems in OCD were mediated by impaired organizational strategies used during learning trials. Therefore, verbal and nonverbal episodic memory deficits in OCD are affected by impaired strategic processing. Results are consistent with neurobiological models proposing frontal-striatal system dysfunction in OCD.Neuropsychology 02/2000; 14(1):141-51. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Padua Inventory (PI), a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, is increasingly used in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) research. Freeston, Ladouceur, Rheaume, Letarte, Gagnon and Thibodeau (1994) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 29-36], however, recently showed that the PI measures worry in addition to obsessions. In an attempt to solve this measurement problem, this study used a content distinction between obsessions and worry to revise the PI. The revision was constructed to measure five content dimensions relevant to OCD i.e. (1) obsessional thoughts about harm to oneself or others; (2) obsessional impulses to harm oneself or others; (3) contamination obsessions and washing compulsions; (4) checking compulsions; and (5) dressing/grooming compulsions. A total of 5010 individuals participated in the study, 2970 individuals completing the PI and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and an additional 2040 individuals completing only the PI. The results provided support for the reliability and validity of the revision. In addition, the revision of the PI was more independent of worry, as measured by the PSWQ, than the original PI. Support was thus found for the validity of the content distinction between obsessions and worry. The importance of this content distinction is also discussed for the evaluation of other hypothesized distinctions between obsessions and worry.Behaviour Research and Therapy 03/1996; 34(2):163-73. · 3.30 Impact Factor