Characteristics of Patients With Cirrhosis Who Are Discharged From the Hospital Against Medical Advice
ABSTRACT Patients discharged from hospital against medical advice are at risk of adverse health outcomes. The frequency and predictors of self-discharge in cirrhotic patients have not been examined.
By using the 1993-2005 US Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified 581,380 cirrhotic patients who had been admitted to hospitals. The proportion discharged against medical advice and predictors of self-discharge were analyzed by using regression models with adjustments for clinical factors, including illness severity.
Of the patients with cirrhosis identified, 2.8% left their hospital against medical advice. Self-discharge was most common in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (4.2%) and hepatitis B or C ( approximately 3%) and least common among those with chronic cholestasis (0.4%). Independent predictors of self-discharge included male sex, younger age, non-private insurance, and admission to urban, nonteaching hospitals. Patients undergoing surgery and those with more comorbidities were less likely to leave against medical advice, whereas those with human immunodeficiency virus, drug and alcohol abuse, or psychosis were more likely to leave against medical advice. Self-discharge was less common among patients with hepatic decompensation (odds ratio [OR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.82), primary liver cancer (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.41-0.59), or prior transplantation (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.25-0.55). Length of stay and hospital charges were lower in patients discharged against medical advice (P < .0001).
Approximately 1 in 36 hospitalized cirrhotic patients leave hospital against medical advice. Self-discharge is most common among patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, lower socioeconomic status, psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, and less severe liver disease. These findings might assist in the prevention of self-discharge and, ultimately, improve health outcomes in patients with cirrhosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cirrhosis and chronic liver disease carry appreciable morbidity and mortality. Cirrhotic patients frequently require hospitalization and their care is both extremely complex and labor-intensive. We seek to provide a review for gastroenterologists, hepatologists, internists, and hospitalists on the approach to care in patients hospitalized for complications related to end-stage liver disease. The Mount Sinai Medical Center's inpatient liver service has developed an integrated team approach for cirrhotic patients and throughout the years has educated fellows-in-training and medical house staff on both the treatment principles and "pearls" in managing the hospitalized cirrhotic patient. We reviewed the literature and provide recommendations on the management of complications of end-stage liver disease. Additionally, we provide a review of the protocols used at our institution in the care for cirrhotic patients. Major complications of advanced liver disease include infection, ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, variceal hemorrhage, hepatorenal syndrome, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Management of these complications involves selecting the appropriate diagnostic studies and prompt administration of therapy. There are many complications of cirrhosis. Management of these complications can be complex and are targeted at stabilizing the patient's clinical condition. Liver transplantation remains the only definitive treatment.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 03/2011; 56(5):1266-81. DOI:10.1007/s10620-011-1619-9 · 2.55 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examined the association of mental and medical illnesses with the odds for leaving against medical advice (AMA) in a national sample of adult patients who left general hospitals between 1988 and 2006. Leaving AMA was first examined as a function of year and mental illness. Multiple logistic regression analysis was then used to adjust for patient and hospital characteristics when associating mental and major medical diagnoses with AMA discharges. The results indicated that leaving AMA was most strongly associated with mental health problems. However, the impact of mental illness was attenuated after adjusting for medical illnesses, patient and hospital characteristics. The strongest predictors of AMA discharge included being self-pay, having Medicaid insurance, being young and male, and the regional location of the hospital (Northeast). When substance abuse conditions were excluded from the mental illness discharge diagnoses, mental illness had lower odds for leaving AMA. The results may be of value to clinicians, and hospital administrators in helping to profile and target patients at risk for treatment-compliance problems. Prospective primary data collection that would include patient, physician, and hospital variables is recommended.Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 11/2011; DOI:10.1007/s10488-011-0382-8 · 3.44 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Approximately 500,000 patients are discharged from US hospitals against medical advice annually, but the associated risks are unknown. We examined 148,810 discharges from an urban, academic health system between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2008. Of these, 3544 (2.4%) were discharged against medical advice, and 80,536 (54.1%) were discharged home. We excluded inpatient deaths, transfers to other hospitals or nursing facilities or discharges with home care. Using adjusted and propensity score-matched analyses, we compared 30-day mortality, 30-day readmission, and length of stay between discharges against medical advice and planned discharges. Discharge against medical advice was associated with higher mortality than planned discharge, after adjustment (odds ratio [OR](adj) 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-2.86), and in propensity-matched analysis (OR(matched) 2.46; 95% CI, 1.29-4.68). Discharge against medical advice also was associated with higher 30-day readmission after adjustment (OR(adj) 1.84; 95% CI, 1.69-2.01), and in propensity-matched analysis (OR(matched) 1.65; 95% CI, 1.46-1.87). Finally, discharges against medical advice had shorter lengths of stay than matched planned discharges (3.37 vs 4.16 days, P <.001). Discharge against medical advice is associated with increased risk for mortality and readmission. In addition, discharges against medical advice have shorter lengths of stay than matched planned discharges, suggesting that the increased risks associated with discharge against medical advice are attributable to premature discharge.The American journal of medicine 04/2012; 125(6):594-602. DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.12.017 · 5.30 Impact Factor