Endothelial cells promote migration and proliferation of enteric neural crest cells via β1 integrin signaling
ABSTRACT Enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) migrate along the intestine to form a highly organized network of ganglia that comprises the enteric nervous system (ENS). The signals driving the migration and patterning of these cells are largely unknown. Examining the spatiotemporal development of the intestinal neurovasculature in avian embryos, we find endothelial cells (ECs) present in the gut prior to the arrival of migrating ENCCs. These ECs are patterned in concentric rings that are predictive of the positioning of later arriving crest-derived cells, leading us to hypothesize that blood vessels may serve as a substrate to guide ENCC migration. Immunohistochemistry at multiple stages during ENS development reveals that ENCCs are positioned adjacent to vessels as they colonize the gut. A similar close anatomic relationship between vessels and enteric neurons was observed in zebrafish larvae. When EC development is inhibited in cultured avian intestine, ENCC migration is arrested and distal aganglionosis results, suggesting that ENCCs require the presence of vessels to colonize the gut. Neural tube and avian midgut were explanted onto a variety of substrates, including components of the extracellular matrix and various cell types, such as fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. We find that crest-derived cells from both the neural tube and the midgut migrate avidly onto cultured endothelial cells. This EC-induced migration is inhibited by the presence of CSAT antibody, which blocks binding to beta1 integrins expressed on the surface of crest-derived cells. These results demonstrate that ECs provide a substrate for the migration of ENCCs via an interaction between beta1 integrins on the ENCC surface and extracellular matrix proteins expressed by the intestinal vasculature. These interactions may play an important role in guiding migration and patterning in the developing ENS.
SourceAvailable from: Karl-Herbert Schäfer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Enteric neurons and blood vessels form intricate networks throughout the gastrointestinal tract. To support the hypothesis of a possible interaction of both networks, we investigated whether primary mesenteric vascular cells (MVCs) and enteric nervous system (ENS)-derived cells (ENSc) depend on each other using two- and three-dimensional in vitro assays. In a confrontation assay, both cell types migrated in a target-oriented manner towards each other. The migration of MVCs was significantly increased when cultured in ENSc-conditioned medium. Co-cultures of ENSc with MVCs resulted in an improved ENSc proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, we analysed the formation of the vascular and nervous system in developing mice guts. It was found that the patterning of newly formed microvessels and neural stem cells, as confirmed by nestin and SOX2 stainings, is highly correlated in all parts of the developing gut. In particular in the distal colon, nestin/SOX2-positive cells were found in the tissues adjacent to the capillaries and in the capillaries themselves. Finally, in order to provide evidences for a mutual interaction between endothelial and neural cells, the vascular patterns of a RET((-/-)) knockout mouse model as well as human Hirschsprung's cases were analysed. In the distal colon of postnatal RET((-/-)) knockout mice, the vascular and neural networks were similarly disrupted. In aganglionic zones of Hirschsprung's patients, the microvascular density was significantly increased compared with the ganglionic zone within the submucosa. Taken together, these findings indicate a strong interaction between the enteric nervous and vascular system.Histochemie 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00418-014-1288-9 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background In mice, the intestinal tube develops from the splanchopleure prior to embryonic day 9.5. Subsequent patterning of nerves and blood vessels is critical for normal digestive function. A hierarchical branching vascular network allows for efficient nutrient absorption, while the complex enteric nervous system regulates intestinal motility as well as secretion, absorption, and blood flow. Despite the well-recognized significance of these systems, the precise mechanisms by which they develop have not been clearly established in mammals.ResultsUsing a novel whole-mount immunohistochemical protocol, we visualize the pattern of intestinal neurovascular development in mice between embryonic day 10.5 and birth. In particular, we focus on the development and remodeling of the enteric vascular plexus, the migration and organization of enteric neural crest-derived cells, and the integration of peripheral sympathetic nerves with the enteric nervous system. These correlative data lead us to hypothesize a functional interaction between migrating neural crest-derived cells and endothelial cells of the primary capillary plexus, as well as a subsequent interaction between developing peripheral autonomic nerves and differentiated neural crest-derived cells.Conclusions These studies provide useful anatomical data for continuing investigations on the functional mechanisms underlying intestinal organogenesis. Developmental Dynamics, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Developmental Dynamics 01/2015; 244(1). DOI:10.1002/dvdy.24178 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For more than 15 years, angiotropism in melanoma has been emphasized as a marker of extravascular migration of tumor cells along the abluminal vascular surface, unveiling an alternative mechanism of tumor spread distinct from intravascular dissemination. This mechanism has been termed extravascular migratory metastasis (EVMM). During EVMM, angiotropic tumor cells migrate in a 'pericytic-like' manner (pericytic mimicry) along the external surfaces of vascular channels, without intravasation. Through this pathway, melanoma cells may spread to nearby or more distant sites. Angiotropism is a prognostic factor predicting risk for metastasis in human melanoma, and a marker of EVMM in several experimental models. Importantly, analogies of EVMM and pericytic mimicry include neural crest cell migration, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, and recent studies have suggested that the interaction between melanoma cells and the abluminal vascular surface induce differential expression of genes reminiscent of cancer migration and embryonic/stem cell state transitions. A recent work revealed that repetitive UV exposure of primary cutaneous melanomas in a genetically engineered mouse model promotes metastatic progression via angiotropism and migration along the abluminal vascular surface. Finally, recent data using imaging of melanoma cells in a murine model have shown the progression of tumor cells along the vascular surfaces. Taken together, these data provide support for the biological phenomenon of angiotropism and EVMM, which may open promising new strategies for reducing or preventing melanoma metastasis.Cancer Microenvironment 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12307-014-0156-4