Periprocedural Drug Therapy in Carotid Artery Stenting: The Need for More Evidence
ABSTRACT Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a widely accepted alternative for patients at high risk for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). However, the role, indications, and evidence for many pharmacologic agents that are used adjunctively in the periprocedural setting have not been established. Several drugs are commonly used before, during, and after CAS, but their uses have not been standardized. Large prospective cohort studies with good validity or randomized trials are needed to demonstrate efficacy, predict outcome, and determine the optimal use of these medications in patients undergoing CAS to improve patient care and obtain optimal outcomes. Several conclusions can be made: (1) dual-antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel) is commonly used for CAS; (2) the most commonly used regimen is aspirin 325 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg per day, but the optimal time of therapy is unknown; and (3) the dose and regimen of other agents used for CAS are not established.
SourceAvailable from: Hyuk Won Chang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea.
Journal of Neurology 07/2013; 260(8). DOI:10.1007/s00415-013-7045-5 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background In primary and secondary prevention, statins significantly reduce cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Pre-interventional statin medication shows a benefit in carotid artery stenosis patients treated with endarterectomy; however, there are few data available for patients treated with stent-angioplasty. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pre-interventional statin therapy is associated with decreased peri-interventional risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and mortality in patients undergoing stent-angioplasty for internal carotid stenosis. Methods Data for 344 consecutively documented patients with internal carotid artery stenosis treated with stent-angioplasty in the years 2002–2012 at the same stroke center were collected in a prospectively defined database. Risk factors, medication, and indication for therapy were documented. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to investigate independent reduction of peri-interventional stroke, myocardial infarction, or death by statin medication prior to stent-angioplasty. Results The median age was 70 years (p25: 63, p75: 76), 75.5% of patients were male, and the median stenosis was 85% according to ECST criteria (p25: 80%, p75: 90%). 20.1% of patients had asymptomatic stenoses, and 60.2% had statin medication before stenting. As per multivariate analysis, pre-interventional statin medication was a predictor for significant peri-interventional risk reduction regarding primary endpoint ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death (odds ratio (OR) 0.31, p = .006). Statins also had a significant protective effect in secondary endpoint ischemic stroke, intracranial bleeding or death (OR 0.39, p = .014), and ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction (OR 0.20; p = .002). Conclusions This study shows that pre-interventional statin medication has a protective effect against peri-interventional stroke, MI, or death in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis treated with stent-angioplasty. Accordingly, statins could be considered as a standard pre-interventional medical therapy in carotid stenting.European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 09/2014; 48(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ejvs.2014.08.010 · 3.07 Impact Factor