Periprocedural Drug Therapy in Carotid Artery Stenting: The Need for More Evidence
ABSTRACT Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a widely accepted alternative for patients at high risk for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). However, the role, indications, and evidence for many pharmacologic agents that are used adjunctively in the periprocedural setting have not been established. Several drugs are commonly used before, during, and after CAS, but their uses have not been standardized. Large prospective cohort studies with good validity or randomized trials are needed to demonstrate efficacy, predict outcome, and determine the optimal use of these medications in patients undergoing CAS to improve patient care and obtain optimal outcomes. Several conclusions can be made: (1) dual-antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel) is commonly used for CAS; (2) the most commonly used regimen is aspirin 325 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg per day, but the optimal time of therapy is unknown; and (3) the dose and regimen of other agents used for CAS are not established.
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ABSTRACT: Increasing data suggest that statins can significantly decrease cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events due to a plaque stabilization effect. However, the benefit of statins in patients undergoing carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) for carotid stenosis is not well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether statins use was associated with decreased perioperative and late risks of stroke, mortality, and restenosis in patients undergoing CAS. All patients undergoing CAS for primary carotid stenosis from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. The independent association of statins and perioperative morbidity was assessed using multivariable analysis. Survival curves and Cox regression models were used to assess late morbidity and restenosis. Propensity score adjustment was employed. A total of 1083 consecutive CAS were performed (29% females, mean age 71.5 years; 24.7% symptomatic); 465 (43%) were on statins medication before treatment that was not discontinued at discharge. Statins use was associated with a reduction of perioperative stroke and death (odds ratio [OR] 0.327, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.80, P = .016) according to multivariable analysis. Statins effect was more significant in reducing stroke and death in symptomatic patients (OR 0.13; P = .032) and in males (OR 0.27, P = .01). At 5 years, survival (87.2% vs 78.3%; P = .009) and ischemic stroke-free interval (88.9% vs 99.7%; P = .02) rates were higher in the statins group of patients. Adjusting for propensity score and covariates in Cox regression analyses, statins use was independently associated with reduced long-term mortality risk (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32-0.97; P = .039) and borderline associated with decreased late ischemic stroke risk (HR 0.14; 95% CI 0.018-1.08, P = .059). There was no effect on restenosis rates. These data suggest that statins use is associated with decreased perioperative and late ischemic strokes risk and reduced mortality rates in patients undergoing CAS. Statins therapy should be considered part of the best medical treatment in current CAS practice.Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 10/2010; 53(1):71-9; discussion 79. DOI:10.1016/j.jvs.2010.08.024 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI) is present in approximately 1% of all blunt force trauma patients and is associated with injuries such as head and cervical spine injuries and thoracic trauma. Increased recognition of patients with TCVI in the past quarter century has been because of aggressive screening protocols and noninvasive imaging with computed tomography angiography. Extracranial carotid and vertebral artery injuries demonstrate a spectrum of severity, from intimal disruption to traumatic aneurysm formation or vessel occlusion. The most common intracranial arterial injuries are carotid-cavernous fistulae and traumatic aneurysms. Data on the long-term natural history of TCVI are limited, and management of patients with TCVI is controversial. Although antithrombotic medical therapy is associated with improved neurological outcomes, the optimal medication regimen is not yet established. Endovascular techniques have become more popular than surgery for the treatment of TCVI; endovascular options include stenting of dissections, intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke caused by trauma, and embolization of traumatic aneurysms.Neurosurgery 11/2010; 68(2):517-30; discussion 530. DOI:10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181fe2fda · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Management of anti-platelet therapy during carotid artery stenting (CAS) is mainly based on indirect evidence from coronary stenting experience. There is common agreement on the use of thienopyridine (mainly second-generation) during CAS, but some patients are unsuitable for clopidogrel treatment and data on the benefit of its use in large CAS populations are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clopidogrel was associated with reduced perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing CAS. Consecutive patients undergoing CAS for primary carotid stenosis from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. The independent association of clopidogrel and perioperative morbidity was assessed using multivariable analysis. A total of 1083 patients were treated (29% females, mean age 71.6 years); 825 (76%) patients were given clopidogrel starting before treatment. Clopidogrel use was associated with a non-significant reduction of perioperative stroke/death (4.3% vs. 2.4%; p = 0.13) and disabling stroke (1.2% vs. 1.0%; p = 1) rates. The non-significant stroke/death difference was similar in symptomatic (5.8% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.37) and asymptomatic (3.7% vs. 1.9%; p = 0.17) patients. After adjusting for demographics, co-morbidities and other therapies with multivariable analysis, clopidogrel use failed to show any significant independent association in decreasing operative risks. The only independent protective factor was use of statins (p = 0.010). The additional use of dual anti-platelet therapy did not add any advantage to the use of clopidogrel alone. The suggested benefit of clopidogrel in decreasing the incidence of complications in patients undergoing CAS may be overestimated due to the overlapping effect of other more relevant factors (e.g., pleiotropy and plaque stabilisation from statins). More data and level I evidence are needed to understand which is the best medical management of CAS that will help improve outcomes of the procedure.European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery: the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery 02/2011; 41(2):214-21. DOI:10.1016/j.ejvs.2010.10.007 · 3.07 Impact Factor