What is left of the endoscopic antireflux devices?

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas, USA.
Current opinion in gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 3.66). 05/2009; 25(4):352-7. DOI: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e32832ad8b4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We critically analyze existing endoscopy-based interventions for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The focus is on the effectiveness of available procedures and to delineate goals for future research.
Recent evaluations of the EndoCinch system reveal poor long-term results and no significant improvement over sham therapy due to poor apposition of mucosa with stitches. Recent studies with transoral incisionless fundoplication demonstrate improvement in GERD symptoms, quality of life, esophageal acid exposure, esophagitis, resting lower esophageal sphincter pressure and medication use. The SRS endoscopic stapling system creates a partial fundoplication wrap, and a preliminary study demonstrated improved symptoms and acid exposure. The Stretta system delivers radiofrequency energy to the gastroesophageal junction. A large prospective series demonstrates sustained improvement in GERD symptoms, quality of life and proton pump inhibitor therapy elimination after radiofrequency ablation at the gastroesophageal junction. A sham-controlled study showed improvement in symptoms at 6 months.
EndoCinch plication requires further study and modification of technique before it can be recommended for general clinical use. Transoral incisionless fundoplication is a very promising procedure in its early stages of development. Further evaluation of procedure safety and durability is needed. Radiofrequency ablation therapy has been reintroduced and may have potential in patients with refractory GERD.

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    • "Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is highly prevalent in western countries, impairs quality of life, and has considerable impact on healthcare costs [1]. New therapies for GERD such as endoscopic application of thermal or injection therapy to the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) have been introduced [2]. However, their efficacy still needs to be proved and Received 18 April 2012; accepted 16 May 2012. "
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Anti-reflux barrier (ARB) resistance may be useful to test new treatments for gastroesophageal reflux (GER). The ARB has been estimated by increasing gastric yield pressure (GYP) and gastric yield volume (GYV) in animal models but has not been validated. This study aimed to develop an experimental model suitable for assessing the ARB resistance to increasing intragastric pressure and volume and its reproducibility in a seven-day interval. Ten two-month-old female Large-White swine were studied. Intragastric pressure and volume were recorded using a digital system connected to a Foley catheter inserted through gastrostomy into the stomach. GYP and GYV were defined as the gastric pressure and volume able to yield gastric contents into the esophagus detected by esophageal pH. A sudden pH drop below 3 sustained during 5 min was considered diagnostic for gastric yield. Animals were studied again after seven days. On days 0 and 7, there were no significant differences for GYP (mean ± SD = 7.66 ± 3.02 mmHg vs. 7.07 ± 3.54 mmHg, p = .686) and GYV (636.70 ± 216.74 ml vs. 608.30 ± 276.66 ml; p = .299), respectively. Concordance correlation coefficient (ρ(c)) was significant for GYP (ρ(c) = 0.634, 95% CI = 0.141-0.829, p = .006), but not for GYV (ρ(c) = 0.291, 95% CI = -0.118 to 0.774, p = .196). This study demonstrated an experimental model, assessing the ARB resistance. GYP seems to be a more reliable parameter than GYV for assessment of ARB resistance.
    Journal of Investigative Surgery 12/2012; DOI:10.3109/08941939.2012.695429 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux is extremely common in Western countries. For selected patients, there is an established role for the surgical treatment of reflux, and possibly an emerging role for endoscopic antireflux procedures. Randomized trials have compared medical versus surgical management, laparoscopic versus open surgery and partial versus total fundoplications. However, the evidence base for endoscopic procedures is limited to some small sham-controlled studies, and cohort studies with short-term follow-up. Laparoscopic fundoplication has been shown to be an effective antireflux operation. It facilitates quicker convalescence and is associated with fewer complications, but has a similar longer term outcome compared with open antireflux surgery. In most randomized trials, antireflux surgery achieves at least as good control of reflux as medical therapy, and these studies support a wider application of surgery for the treatment of moderate-to-severe reflux. Laparoscopic partial fundoplication is an effective surgical procedure with fewer side effects, and it may achieve high rates of patient satisfaction at late follow-up. Many of the early endoscopic antireflux procedures have failed to achieve effective reflux control, and they have been withdrawn from the market. Newer procedures have the potential to fashion a surgical fundoplication. However, at present there is insufficient evidence to establish the safety and efficacy of endoscopic procedures for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, and no endoscopic procedure has achieved equivalent reflux control to that achieved by surgical fundoplication.
    Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology 04/2010; 4(2):235-43. DOI:10.1586/egh.10.5 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transoral treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) using the EsophyX device enables creation of an esophagogastric fundoplication with potential for better control of reflux than gastrogastric techniques. Efficacy and safety of a rotational/longitudinal esophagogastric transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) was evaluated retrospectively using subjective and objective outcomes. Thirty-seven consecutive patients on antisecretory medication and with proven gastroesophageal reflux and limited hiatal hernia underwent TIF for persistent GERD symptoms. Five patients were reoperations for failed laparoscopic fundoplication. Of the 37 treated patients, 57% were female. The median age was 58 (range=20-81) years and BMI was 25.5 (range=15.9-36.1) kg/m2. Sixty-eight percent indicated GERD-associated cough, asthma, or aspiration as a primary complaint and 32% complained of heartburn or regurgitation. The TIF procedures created tight wraps of 230°-330° extending 3-4 cm above the Z-line. Two complications occurred: one mediastinal abscess treated laparoscopically and one postoperative bleeding requiring transfusion. At 6 (range=3-14) months median follow-up TIF resulted in a significant improvement of both atypical and typical symptoms in 64% and 70-80% of patients, respectively, as indicated by the corresponding GERD health-related quality of life (HRQL) and reflux symptom index (RSI) score reduction by 50% or more compared to baseline on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). No patient reported problems with dysphagia, bloating, or excess flatulence, and 82% were not taking any PPIs. Reflux characteristics were significantly improved and normalized in 61, 89, and 56% of patients in terms of acid exposure, number of refluxates, and DeMeester scores, respectively. TIF was effective in treating GERD in 75% of patients among whom 54% were in a complete "remission" and 21% were "improved." The remaining 25% were considered failures, and five (13.5%) patients underwent revision. Rotational/longitudinal esophagogastric fundoplication using the EsophyX device significantly improved symptomatic and objective outcomes in over 70% of patients at median 6-month follow-up. Post-fundoplication side effects were not reported after TIF.
    Surgical Endoscopy 12/2010; 25(6):1975-84. DOI:10.1007/s00464-010-1497-9 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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