Article

Sexual differences in the control of energy homeostasis

Obesity Research Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (Impact Factor: 7.58). 04/2009; 30(3):396-404. DOI: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2009.03.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportion with enormous costs in both human lives and healthcare dollars spent. Obesity-related metabolic disorders are much lower in premenopausal women than men; however, there is a dramatic increase following menopause in women. The health risks associated with obesity vary depending on the location of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue distributed in the abdominal visceral carry a much greater risk for metabolic disorders than does adipose tissue distributed subcutaneously. There are distinct sex-dependent differences in the regional fat distribution, women carry more fat subcutaneously whereas men carry more fat viscerally. Males and females differ with respect to their regulation of energy homeostasis. Peripheral adiposity hormones such as leptin and insulin as well as sex hormones directly influence energy balance. Sexual dimorphisms in energy balance, body fat distribution, and the role sex hormones have in mediating these differences are the focus of this review.

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Available from: Haifei Shi, Aug 01, 2014
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    • "There is a wealth of clinical and experimental data demonstrating that sex steroids and insulin interact in their effects on several tissues [33]. The deficiency of estrogens or its receptors is associated with increased adiposity, in particular in visceral fat, which impairs insulin sensitivity [17], [34]. Moreover, restoration of estrogens levels in ovariectomized mice blunts the body weight gain. "
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    • "Furthermore, and especially important for understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and its metabolic complications, interactions of sex differences in gene expression with environmental variables such as diet composition and exercise/activity on fatness and fat distribution remain largely unexplored. Because excellent reviews of sex differences in the regulation of food intake and body weight have been recently published [6,7], in this review, we focus on physiologic and genetic determinants of sex differences in fat distribution. "
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