Article

Sexual differences in the control of energy homeostasis.

Obesity Research Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (Impact Factor: 7.99). 04/2009; 30(3):396-404.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportion with enormous costs in both human lives and healthcare dollars spent. Obesity-related metabolic disorders are much lower in premenopausal women than men; however, there is a dramatic increase following menopause in women. The health risks associated with obesity vary depending on the location of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue distributed in the abdominal visceral carry a much greater risk for metabolic disorders than does adipose tissue distributed subcutaneously. There are distinct sex-dependent differences in the regional fat distribution, women carry more fat subcutaneously whereas men carry more fat viscerally. Males and females differ with respect to their regulation of energy homeostasis. Peripheral adiposity hormones such as leptin and insulin as well as sex hormones directly influence energy balance. Sexual dimorphisms in energy balance, body fat distribution, and the role sex hormones have in mediating these differences are the focus of this review.

3 Bookmarks
 · 
233 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Beta-cell dysfunction is an early event in the natural history of type 2 diabetes. However, its progression is variable and potentially influenced by several clinical factors. We report the baseline data of the BetaDecline study, an Italian prospective multicenter study on clinical predictors of beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109702. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor α (ERα) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1α regulates ERα and inflammation in vivo. HFD significantly increased palmitic acid (PA) and sphingolipids in the CNS of male mice when compared to female mice. PA, in vitro, and HFD, in vivo, reduced PGC-1α and ERα in hypothalamic neurons and astrocytes of male mice and promoted inflammation. PGC-1α depletion with ERα overexpression significantly inhibited PA-induced inflammation, confirming that ERα is a critical determinant of the anti-inflammatory response. Physiologic relevance of ERα-regulated inflammation was demonstrated by reduced myocardial function in male, but not female, mice following chronic HFD exposure. Our findings show that HFD/PA reduces PGC-1α and ERα, promoting inflammation and decrements in myocardial function in a sex-specific way.
    Cell Reports. 10/2014; 9(2):633-645.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is accumulating evidence that vitamin D (VD) has important effects besides its well-known role in calcium and bone metabolism. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer as well as with increased mortality. Further, VD deficiency is related to depression and impaired cognitive function. Increasing age and elevated body fat mass contribute to an increased risk of VD deficiency. Further, some studies report a relationship between VD and estrogen metabolism. During menopause, the decline of estrogens results in increased bone turnover, a decrease in bone mineral density and elevated fracture risk. Musculoskeletal discomfort might impair quality of life, mood disturbances do frequently occur and the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease increases. Moreover, body composition changes including increased fat mass and decreased lean mass, which results in an increased risk of VD deficiency. Conversely, VD deficiency might aggravate discomfort as well as diseases that occur during menopause. There are precise recommendations regarding a sufficient VD intake in order to prevent bone loss in peri- and postmenopausal women. Considering the fact that VD deficiency and menopause share risk factors beyond bone health such as cardiovascular, metabolic, cognitive and affective disorders, a sufficient VD status should be obtained in all peri- and postmenopausal women. This might be beneficial not only considering bone health but also regarding cognitive, affective, metabolic and cardiovascular health of women.
    Maturitas 09/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
21 Downloads
Available from
Aug 1, 2014