Prevention of cervical cancer in women with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 4:68-73

Unité de Biologie de la Reproduction, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, France.
Current opinion in HIV and AIDS (Impact Factor: 4.68). 02/2009; 4(1):68-73. DOI: 10.1097/COH.0b013e328319bcbe
Source: PubMed


Cervical cancer, caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), is the only cancer that is almost preventable through regular screening. In high-resource, as in low-resource and middle-resource countries, women hit by the AIDS epidemic have a high prevalence of infection with HPV and related disease, including cervical cancer. The question whether cervical screening, which helped to reduce dramatically cervical cancer rates through the detection of precancerous lesions in the general population, is as efficient in the setting of HIV is still debated.
The risk for cervical cancer remained high and stable during the last decade in HIV-infected women, and incidence did not decrease with improving CD4 cell counts in women receiving antiviral therapy. Optimal methods to improve both the sensitivity and the specificity of cervical cancer screening are currently evaluated. The use of HPV DNA tests in primary screening endorsed in the general population may be less specific in immunocompromised women and might thus not be as efficient on screening. HPV vaccines, recently available, have no therapeutic effect and might thus not be very useful in preventing cervical cancer in a population highly infected with multiple and persistent HPV.
Cervical cancer prevention remains an important goal in HIV-infected women and specific guidelines are warranted for this increasing population.

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    • "Mild dysplasia prevalence in immunocompetent women does not exceed 27%, whereas this can rise to 80% in HIV-positive women; immunosuppression in the latter group implies the development of more aggressive lesions and a lower response to treatment [11], as well as leading to the appearance of precancerous lesions in about 60% of women suffering HPV infection which evolves in less than 3 years [11,12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background HIV infection leads to a decreasing immune response, thereby facilitating the appearance of other infections, one of the most important ones being HPV. However, studies are needed for determining associations between immunodeficiency caused by HIV and/or the presence of HPV during the course of cervical lesions and their degree of malignancy. This study describes the cytological findings revealed by the Papanicolaou test, laboratory characteristics and HPV molecular profile in women with and without HIV infection. Methods A total of 216 HIV-positive and 1,159 HIV-negative women were invited to participate in the study; PCR was used for the molecular detection of HPV in cervical samples. Statistical analysis (such as percentages, Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test when applicable) determined human papillomavirus (HPV) infection frequency (single and multiple) and the distribution of six types of high-risk-HPV in women with and without HIV infection. Likewise, a logistic regression model was run to evaluate the relationship between HIV-HPV infection and different risk factors. Results An association was found between the frequency of HPV infection and infection involving 2 or more HPV types (also known as multiple HPV infection) in HIV-positive women (69.0% and 54.2%, respectively); such frequency was greater than that found in HIV-negative women (44.3% and 22.7%, respectively). Statistically significant differences were observed between both groups (p = 0.001) regarding HPV presence (both in infection and multiple HPV infection). HPV-16 was the most prevalent type in the population being studied (p = 0.001); other viral types had variable distribution in both groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative). HPV detection was associated with <500 cell/mm3 CD4-count (p = 0.004) and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001). HPV-DNA detection, <200 cell/mm3 CD4-count (p = 0.001), and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001) were associated with abnormal cytological findings. Conclusions The HIV-1 positive population in this study had high multiple HPV infection prevalence. The results for this population group also suggested a greater association between HPV-DNA presence and cytological findings. HPV detection, together with low CD4 count, could represent useful tools for identifying HIV-positive women at risk of developing cervical lesions.
    BMC Cancer 06/2014; 14(1):451. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-451 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Before the era of antiretroviral therapy, the life expectancy of HIV-infected women was too short for a systematic cervical cancer screening program to demonstrate effectiveness [12]. Today, despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) guided by CD4 count, the probability of developing invasive cervical cancer remains high and stable in this population at risk [13,14]. Thus, the follow-up of women on antiretroviral therapy offers an opportunity for cervical cancer screening in resource-poor countries [15,16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the first female cancer in Lao PDR, a low-income country with no national screening and prevention programs for this human papillomavirus (HPV) associated pathology. HIV-infected women have a higher risk of persistent oncogenic HPV infection.The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge, awareness and attitudes about cervical cancer among Lao women attending or not an HIV treatment center, in order to understand if this attendance had offered an opportunity for information and prevention. A cross-sectional case-control survey was conducted in three provinces of Lao PDR, Vientiane, Luang Prabang and Savannakhet. Cases were 320 women aged 25 to 65, living with HIV and followed in an HIV treatment center. Controls were 320 women matched for age and place of residence, not attending an HIV treatment center. Cases had a greater number of sexual partners and used condoms more often than controls. Only 36.6% of women had consulted a gynecologist (47.5% among cases and 25.6% among controls, p < 0.001) and 3.9% had benefited from at least one Pap smear screening (5.6% cases and 2.2% controls, p = 0.02). The average knowledge score was 3.5 on a 0 to 13 scale, significantly higher in cases than in controls (p < 0.0001). Despite having a lower education level and economic status, the women living with HIV had a better knowledge about cervical cancer and were more aware than the controls of the risk of developing such a cancer (35.9% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.0001). The main source of information was healthcare professionals. The main reasons for not undergoing Pap smear were the absence of symptoms and the default of medical injunction for cases, the lack of information and ignorance of screening usefulness for controls. In Lao PDR, routine consultation in HIV treatment centers is not enough harnessed to inform women of their high risk of developing cervical cancer, and to perform screening testing and treatment of precancerous lesions. Implementing this cost-effective strategy could be the first step toward a national prevention program for cervical cancer.
    BMC Cancer 03/2014; 14(1):161. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-161 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "An initial consideration of different variables suggest that vaccination would be less effective in HIV/AIDS population, considering that distribution of HPV types is different in HIV-infected population. Since HPV16 is present in lower rates than in the rest of the population, and other types incidence is increased, vaccine efficacy can be reduced [59]. Also, it has been found that HPV related lesions are 5 times less likely to regress in HIV- positive women than in those without HIV [60]. "
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    ABSTRACT: TO COMPARE COSTS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE STRATEGIES USED AGAINST CERVICAL CANCER (CC) AND GENITAL WARTS: (i) Screening for CC; (ii) Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii) Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination) until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS). At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be 'cost-effective' vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars) per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80639. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0080639 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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