Gut Pathogens: enteric health at the interface of changing microbiology.
ABSTRACT The International Society for Genomic and Evolutionary Microbiology (ISOGEM) in collaboration with BioMed Central Ltd. has launched Gut Pathogens with the aim of providing a high-quality forum for research on enteric infections of humans and animals. The journal led by three Editors-in-Chief and supported by a highly qualified and organized international Editorial Board publishes open access research articles of repute in areas of biology and the pathogenesis of bacterial, parasitic and viral infections of the gut including their diagnosis, epidemiology and clinical management.
- SourceAvailable from: Katherine L Snyder[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As a prominent concern regarding implantable devices, eliminating the threat of opportunistic bacterial infection represents a significant benefit to both patient health and device function. Current treatment options focus on chemical approaches to negate bacterial adhesion, however, these methods are in some ways limited. The scope of this study was to assess the efficacy of a novel means of modulating bacterial adhesion through the application of vibrations using magnetoelastic materials. Magnetoelastic materials possess unique magnetostrictive property that can convert a magnetic field stimulus into a mechanical deformation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that vibrational loads generated by the magnetoelastic materials significantly reduced the number of adherent bacteria on samples exposed to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus suspensions. These experiments demonstrate that vibrational loads from magnetoelastic materials can be used as a post-deployment activated means to deter bacterial adhesion and device infection.Journal of functional biomaterials. 03/2014; 5(1):15-26.
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ABSTRACT: Johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, is a chronic fatal ruminant gastroenteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) whose foodborne zoonotic potential and association with Crohn's disease are still under debate. The disease is widespread but its epidemiology and epizootiology remains elusive. Wildlife is suspected to play a major role. After a surge in MAP seroprevalence in Austrian cattle, paratuberculosis was declared a notifiable disease in Austria in 2006. At the same time a rise in MAP cases in wild ruminant populations in the Austrian province of Styria was reported. All five autochthonous ruminants were affected. Genetic analysis of isolates, yielded numerous genotypes (>15) and several multiple strain infections (15%) across host species. Identical MIRU-VNTR profiles were identified in different species and sampling locations. On the other hand varying MIRU-VNTR profiles were revealed at the same location and in conspecifics. Our data, taken together with earlier epidemiological studies on MAP and other mycobacteria, raised concerns about the organisms' ecology. Constraints regarding in vitro culture of this highly fastidious organism potentially bias our current understanding of its epidemiology. We suggest that MAP infections could be polyclonal and question the informative value of genotyping a single MAP colony derived from a single specimen for epidemiological analysis of MAP.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 11/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. A total of 725 Listeria monocytogenes isolates, 607 from various foods and 118 from clinical cases of listeriosis, were investigated concerning their ability to form biofilms, at 4°C during 5 days and at 37°C during 24 h. Methods. Biofilm production was carried out on polystyrene tissue culture plates. Five L. monocytogenes isolates were tested for biofilm formation after being exposed to acidic and osmotic stress conditions. Results. Significant differences (P < 0.01) between clinical and food isolates were observed. At 37°C for 24 h, most food isolates were classified as weak or moderate biofilm formers whereas all the clinical isolates were biofilm producers, although the majority were weak. At 4°C during 5 days, 65 and 59% isolates, from food and clinical cases, respectively, were classified as weak. After both sublethal stresses, at 37°C just one of the five isolates tested was shown to be more sensitive to subsequent acidic exposure. However, at 4°C both stresses did not confer either sensitivity or resistance. Conclusions. Significant differences between isolates origin, temperature, and sublethal acidic stress were observed concerning the ability to form biofilms. Strain, origin, and environmental conditions can determine the level of biofilm production by L. monocytogenes isolates.International Journal of Microbiology 01/2013; 2013:524975.
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Gut Pathogens: enteric health at the interface of changing
Niyaz Ahmed*1, Leonardo A Sechi2, Francis Megraud3 and Seyed E Hasnain4
Address: 1Pathogen Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India, 2Department of Biomedical
Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy, 3INSERM – U853, Laboratoire de Bactériologie, CHU Pellegrin, 33076 Bordeaux cedex, France and
4Institute of Life Sciences, Hyderabad University Campus, Hyderabad, India
Email: Niyaz Ahmed* - email@example.com; Leonardo A Sechi - firstname.lastname@example.org; Francis Megraud - email@example.com;
Seyed E Hasnain - firstname.lastname@example.org
* Corresponding author
As the open access movement begins revolutionizing the
publication of publicly funded biomedical research, it is
time to ensure access to important scientific discoveries
and opinions within and across the disciplines which
have direct bearing on health and quality of life in
resource poor settings and in countries of the world where
library budgets are seriously shrinking. In this concern,
the area of enteric infectious diseases and gut health has
been of paramount significance. For example, the enteric
infections that cause diarrhoeal diseases already consti-
tute one of the top 10 causes of death and kill approxi-
mately 1.81 million people in the developing world
(6.9% of total deaths), a figure which is more dramatic
and alarming than the number of deaths associated with
tuberculosis and malaria put together (Source: The WHO)
To this end, the International Society for Genomic and
Evolutionary Microbiology (ISOGEM) in collaboration
with BioMed Central Ltd. has launched Gut Pathogens with
the aim of providing a high-quality forum for research on
enteric infections of humans and animals. The journal led
by three Editors-in-Chief and supported by a highly qual-
ified and organized international Editorial Board  pub-
lishes open access research articles of repute in areas of
biology and the pathogenesis of bacterial, parasitic and
viral infections of the gut including their diagnosis, epide-
miology and clinical management.
Besides publication of peer-reviewed research articles and
case reports, Gut Pathogens is also mandated to publish
scholarly reviews and other opinionated articles related to
microbial etiology of gut ailments; microbial invasion
mechanisms; bacterial toxins and virulence factors of the
pathogens of gut and associated glands (liver, pancreas);
bacterial adaptation and evolution of pathogenicity;
molecular and serological diagnoses; treatment, vaccines
and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms; molecular epi-
demiology, transmission dynamics and evolutionary
genetics and comparative and veterinary infectious dis-
eases of the gut.
The field of medical microbiology has expanded tremen-
dously in the aftermath of genomic revolution , and
microbial organisms in the gut have already taken center
stage among all other microbiota of the human surfaces
[4-6]. Metagenomics and systems biology approaches
[4,5] have enabled new insights  into the complex
existence of the gut ecosystem and hold tremendous
potential to boost our understanding of the elements of
host-microbial co-evolution, commensalism versus para-
sitic invasions and the boundaries thereof. In view of such
an exciting and fast-moving scenario, there is a clear
opportunity for Gut Pathogens to be seen also as a timely
initiative to serve communities associated with a) biology
and ecology of gut pathogens, the commensals and the
probiotic species [7,8] in health and disease, b) host sus-
ceptibility or resistance to such organisms, c) immune
reactions of gut infections and d) the triggers of autoim-
Published: 3 February 2009
Gut Pathogens 2009, 1:1doi:10.1186/1757-4749-1-1
Received: 28 January 2009
Accepted: 3 February 2009
This article is available from: http://www.gutpathogens.com/content/1/1/1
© 2009 Ahmed et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0),
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Publish with BioMed Central and every
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Your research papers will be:
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Gut Pathogens 2009, 1:1http://www.gutpathogens.com/content/1/1/1
Page 2 of 2
(page number not for citation purposes)
munity in inflammatory bowel diseases [9,10] and other
metabolic syndromes [11,12].
As like all BioMed Central journals, Gut Pathogens shall be
committed to the open access publication policy – the
concept that has revolutionized research access to com-
munities and that was recently endorsed by major fund-
ing agencies including the NIH and the Wellcome Trust.
In addition to its embracement of open access, Gut Patho-
gens shall also aim to support the concept of Science 2.0
 by providing a truly open platform for discussions,
commenting and rating of the subjective impact of indi-
In the near future, medical and biosciences communities
will need to possibly consider novel findings and para-
digms that are emerging in the aftermath of genome
sequencing and metagenomics of the gut microorgan-
isms. Also, those who diagnose and treat patients with
enteric disorders will need to understand the nature and
complexities of the interactions of the so called 'invaders'
 with our intestinal ecosystem in health, and their per-
turbations in disease, and the roles and contribution of
our gut symbionts and commensals in guarding and
ensuring normalcy of the gut or otherwise. This shall
greatly facilitate the practice of preventive and social med-
icine in a most effective and pertinent manner. Gut Patho-
gens will always strive to assist scientists and clinicians in
this endeavor by translating the most recent advances for
the benefit of patients.
The Top 10 causes of death [http://www.who.int/mediacentre/
Gut Pathogens Editorial Board [http://www.gutpathogens.com/
3.Ahmed N, Dobrindt U, Hacker J, Hasnain SE: Genomic fluidity and
pathogenic bacteria: applications in diagnostics, epidemiol-
ogy and intervention. Nat Rev Microbiol 2008, 6:387-94.
4.Jacobs DM, Gaudier E, van Duynhoven J, Vaughan EE: Non-digesti-
ble food ingredients, colonic microbiota and the impact on
gut health and immunity: a role for metabolomics. Curr Drug
Metab 2009, 10:41-54.
5.Turnbaugh PJ, Gordon JI: An invitation to the marriage of
metagenomics and metabolomics. Cell 2008, 134:708-13.
6.Turnbaugh PJ, Hamady M, Yatsunenko T, Cantarel BL, Duncan A, Ley
RE, Sogin ML, Jones WJ, Roe BA, Affourtit JP, Egholm M, Henrissat B,
Heath AC, Knight R, Gordon JI: A core gut microbiome in obese
and lean twins. Nature 2008, 457:480-84.
7.Collado MC, Isolauri E, Salminen S, Sanz Y: The impact of probi-
otic on gut health. Curr Drug Metab 2009, 10:68-78.
8.Bodera P, Chcialowski A: Immunomodulatory effect of probi-
otic bacteria. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2009, 3:58-64.
9.Scanu AM, Bull TJ, Cannas S, Sanderson JD, Sechi LA, Dettori G, Zan-
etti S, Hermon-Taylor J: Mycobacterium avium subspecies
paratuberculosis infection in cases of irritable bowel syn-
drome and comparison with Crohn's disease and Johne's dis-
ease: common neural and immune pathogenicities. J Clin
Microbiol 2007, 45:3883-90.
10.Sechi LA, Gazouli M, Sieswerda LE, Molicotti P, Ahmed N, Ikono-
mopoulos J, Scanu AM, Paccagnini D, Zanetti S: Relationship
between Crohn's disease, infection with Mycobacterium
avium subspecies paratuberculosis and SLC11A1 gene poly-
morphisms in Sardinian patients. World J Gastroenterol 2006,
Sechi LA, Paccagnini D, Salza S, Pacifico A, Ahmed N, Zanetti S:
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis bactere-
mia in type-1 diabetes mellitus: an infectious trigger? Clin
Infect Dis 2008, 46:148-9.
Sechi LA, Rosu V, Pacifico A, Fadda G, Ahmed N, Zanetti S: Humoral
immune responses of type 1 diabetes patients to Mycobacte-
rium avium subsp. paratuberculosis lend support to the
infectious trigger hypothesis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2008,
Science 2.0 – Is Open Access Science the Future? [http://
Hermon-Taylor J: Gut Pathogens: Invaders and turncoats in a
complex cosmos. Gut Path 2009, 1:3.