Current smoking-specific gene expression signature in normal bronchial epithelium is enhanced in squamous cell lung cancer.
ABSTRACT Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for the development of squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC). However, the smoking-related molecular changes in SCC have not been studied. Gene expression studies in both histologically normal bronchial epithelium and SCC epithelial samples identified genes differentially expressed between current and ex-smokers. Subsequently, expression levels of the smoking-related genes in normal bronchial epithelium were compared with those in SCC cells, since we hypothesized that the smoking-induced changes would be also deregulated in SCC. Gene expression profiles were generated using Agilent whole human genome microarrays on laser-microdissected normal bronchial epithelium and SCC samples. Expression levels of 246 genes, mainly related to oxidative stress response, were significantly different between normal bronchial epithelium of current and ex-smokers. Such a differential gene expression profile did not exist in SCC cells of smokers and ex-smokers. Interestingly, when comparing SCC and normal bronchial epithelium from ex-smokers, the vast majority of these 246 genes were also deregulated in SCC. When comparing SCC with normal epithelium from smokers, 22% of the up-regulated genes showed a similar high expression in SCC whereas 79% of the down-regulated genes were even further reduced in SCC as compared to current smokers. The down-regulated genes included several tumour suppressor genes, such as C9orf9, INHBB, LRIG1, SCGB3A1, SERPINI2, STEAP3 and ZMYND10. Thus, our study shows that the majority of genes up-regulated in normal bronchial epithelium of current smokers show similar high expression levels in SCC, while down-regulated genes are even further repressed in SCC. Our data indicate that smoking-related changes in normal bronchial epithelial cells persist in malignant transformed squamous cells.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction The development of reliable gene expression profiling technology increasingly impacts our understanding of lung cancer biology. Here, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the transcriptomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and normal lung tissues and to investigate expression in lung cancer tissues. Methods We enrolled 88 male patients (mean age, 61.2 years) with NSCLC. RNA-Seq was performed on 88 pairs of NSCLC tumor tissue and non-tumor tissue from 54 patients with adenocarcinoma and 34 patients with squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was performed to validate differential candidate gene expression in a different NSCLC group. Results RNA-Seq produced 25.41 × 106 (± 8.90 × 106) reads in NSCLC tissues and 24.70 × 106 (± 4.70 × 106) reads in normal lung tissues [mean (± standard deviation)]. Among the genes expressed in both tissues, 335 were upregulated and 728 were downregulated ≥ 2-fold (P < 0.001). Four upregulated genes–CBX3, GJB2, CRABP2, and DSP–not previously reported in lung cancer were studied further. Their altered expression was verified by immunohistochemistry in a different set of NSCLC tissues (n = 154). CBX3 was positive in 90.3% (139 cases) of the samples; GJB2, in 22.7% (35 cases); CRABP2, in 72.1% (111 cases); and DSP, in 17.5% (27 cases). The positive rate of CRABP2 was higher in adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma (p < 0.01). Conclusions CBX3 and CRABP2 expression was markedly increased in lung cancer tissues and especially CRABP2 may be promising candidate genes in lung adenocarcinoma.Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 06/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Tumor protein D52 (TPD52) gene was identified nearly 20 years ago through its overexpression in human cancer, and a substantial body of data now strongly supports TPD52 representing a gene amplification target at chromosome 8q21.13. This review updates progress toward understanding the significance of TPD52 overexpression and targeting, both in tumors known to be characterized by TPD52 overexpression/amplification, and those where TPD52 overexpression/amplification has been recently or variably reported. We highlight recent findings supporting microRNA regulation of TPD52 expression in experimental systems and describe progress toward deciphering TPD52's cellular functions, particularly in cancer cells. Finally, we provide an overview of TPD52's potential as a cancer biomarker and immunotherapeutic target. These combined studies highlight the potential value of genes such as TPD52, which are overexpressed in many cancer types, but have been relatively understudied.Tumor Biology 05/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose Cigarette smoking is the major pathogenic factor for lung cancer. The precise mechanisms of tobacco-related carcinogenesis, and its effect on the genomic and transcriptional landscape in lung cancer are not fully understood. Experimental Design 1398 (277 never-smokers, 1121 smokers) genomic and 1449 (370 never-smokers, 1079 smokers) transcriptional profiles were assembled from public lung adenocarcinoma cohorts, including matched next-generation DNA-sequencing data (n=423). Unsupervised and supervised methods were used to identify smoking-related copy number alterations (CNAs), predictors of smoking status, and molecular subgroups. Results Genomic meta-analyses showed that never-smokers and smokers harbored a similar frequency of total CNAs, although, specific regions (5q, 8q, 16p, 19p, and 22q) displayed a 20-30% frequency difference between the two groups. Importantly, supervised classification analyses based on CNAs or gene expression could not accurately predict smoking status (balanced accuracies ~60-80%). However, unsupervised multicohort transcriptional profiling stratified adenocarcinomas into distinct molecular subgroups with specific patterns of CNAs, oncogenic mutations, and mutation transversion frequencies that were independent of the smoking status. One subgroup included ~55-90% of never-smokers and ~20-40% of smokers (both current and former) with molecular and clinical features of a less aggressive and smoking-unrelated disease. Given the considerable intra-group heterogeneity in smoking-defined subgroups, especially among former-smokers, our results emphasize the clinical importance of accurate molecular characterization of lung adenocarcinoma. Conclusions The landscape of smoking-related CNAs and transcriptional alterations in adenocarcinomas is complex, heterogeneous, and with moderate differences. Our results support a molecularly distinct less aggressive adenocarcinoma entity, arising in never-smokers and a subset of smokers.Clinical Cancer Research 07/2014; · 8.19 Impact Factor