Disparities in obesity and overweight prevalence among US immigrant children and adolescents by generational status.
ABSTRACT We examined the prevalence and socio-behavioral correlates of obesity and overweight among 46,707 immigrant and US-born children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. The 2003 National Survey of Children's Health was used to estimate obesity and overweight prevalence among children in 12 immigrant groups, stratified by race/ethnicity and generational status. Logistic regression was used to examine immigrant differentials in the prevalence and odds of obesity and overweight. Obesity and overweight prevalence varied from a low of 6 and 18% for second-generation Asian immigrants to a high of 24 and 42% for native-born black children (US-born black children with US-born parents), respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood safety, television viewing, computer use, and physical activity, first-generation immigrant children, overall, had 26% lower odds of obesity than native-born children. Obesity and overweight prevalence was lower for immigrant black and white children than their native-born counterparts, while obesity and overweight prevalence among Hispanic children did not vary significantly by generational status. Compared with native-born white children, the adjusted odds of obesity were 64% higher for native-born blacks, 55% higher for second-generation Hispanic immigrants, and 63% lower for first-generation Asian immigrants. Adjusted immigrant differentials in overweight risks were also marked. Socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral factors accounted for 61 and 35% of ethnic-immigrant disparities in obesity and overweight prevalence, respectively. Immigrant patterns in childhood obesity and overweight vary substantially by ethnicity and generational status. To reduce disparities, obesity prevention programs must target at-risk children of both immigrant and US-born parents.
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe epidemic of diabetes continues leaving an enormous and growing burden of chronic disease to public health. This study investigates this growing burden of diabetes independent of increasing BMI in a large population based female sample, 2006–2010.MethodsSerial cross-sectional data using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2006–2010 surveys from 1,168,418 women. Diabetes was assessed by self-report of a physician diagnosis, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported height and weight.ResultsAlmost 60% of women responders had a BMI > 25 (defined as overweight or obese). Diabetes was reported in 16% of respondents whose BMI > 25, and in 4% of respondents with reported BMI ≤ 25. Overall, 11% of the women in this sample reported being diagnosed with diabetes, of whom 83% had a BMI > 25. BMI, physical activity, age, and race were each independently associated with diabetes (p-value < 0.05). The odds of reported diabetes increased each year independent of BMI, physical activity, age, and race.ConclusionsAfter adjusting for age, race, physical activity, and year of survey response, results indicate a threefold increase in diabetes among respondents with a BMI > 25 (OR = 3.57; 95% CI = 3.52-3.63). Potentially more alarming was a notable increase in odds of diabetes across the years of study among women, implying a near 30 percent projected increase in odds of diabetes diagnoses by 2020. This is likely due to advances in diagnosis and treatment but also highlights a burden of disease that will have a growing and sustained impact on public health and healthcare systems.BMC Public Health 09/2014; 14(1):954. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-954 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine whether childhood body size, composition and blood pressure are associated with adult cardiac structure by estimating childhood “age of divergence.” Methods 385 female and 312 male participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study had echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular mass, relative wall thickness, and interventricular septal thickness. Also available were anthropometric measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, percentage body fat, fat free mass, total body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, taken in both childhood and adulthood. The age of divergence is estimated as the lowest age at which childhood measurements are significantly different between patients with low and high measurements of adult cardiac structure. Results Childhood body mass index is significantly associated with adult left ventricular mass (indexed by height) in men and women (ages of divergence: 7.5 years and 11.5 years, respectively), and with adult interventricular septal thickness in boys (age of divergence: 9 years). Childhood waist circumference indexed by height is associated with left ventricular mass (indexed by height) in boys (age of divergence: 8 years). Cardiac structure was in general not associated with childhood body composition and blood pressure. Conclusions Though results are affected by adult body size, composition and blood pressure, some aspects of adult cardiac structure may have their genesis in childhood body size.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106333. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106333 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The body mass index (BMI) of youth often changes when they immigrate to a new country as a result of the adoption of new behaviours, a process called acculturation. We investigated whether BMI differs by country of birth (Canada v. other countries) and ethnicity, both individually and together. We also examined whether time since immigration and health-related behaviour explain any observed BMI differences.07/2014; 2(3):E145-52. DOI:10.9778/cmajo.20130088