We examined the prevalence and socio-behavioral correlates of obesity and overweight among 46,707 immigrant and US-born children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. The 2003 National Survey of Children's Health was used to estimate obesity and overweight prevalence among children in 12 immigrant groups, stratified by race/ethnicity and generational status. Logistic regression was used to examine immigrant differentials in the prevalence and odds of obesity and overweight. Obesity and overweight prevalence varied from a low of 6 and 18% for second-generation Asian immigrants to a high of 24 and 42% for native-born black children (US-born black children with US-born parents), respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood safety, television viewing, computer use, and physical activity, first-generation immigrant children, overall, had 26% lower odds of obesity than native-born children. Obesity and overweight prevalence was lower for immigrant black and white children than their native-born counterparts, while obesity and overweight prevalence among Hispanic children did not vary significantly by generational status. Compared with native-born white children, the adjusted odds of obesity were 64% higher for native-born blacks, 55% higher for second-generation Hispanic immigrants, and 63% lower for first-generation Asian immigrants. Adjusted immigrant differentials in overweight risks were also marked. Socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral factors accounted for 61 and 35% of ethnic-immigrant disparities in obesity and overweight prevalence, respectively. Immigrant patterns in childhood obesity and overweight vary substantially by ethnicity and generational status. To reduce disparities, obesity prevention programs must target at-risk children of both immigrant and US-born parents.
"Thus, the extent to which the association between individual-level factors of age, sex, BMI, and body image distortion hold among immigrant children and adolescents is unclear. This is particularly intriguing given populationbased data suggesting that children and adolescents who live in an immigrant family are significantly more likely to be overweight or obese compared to their 3rd generationor-later peers (Singh et al. 2009; Van Hook et al. 2012). If the previously found pattern between BMI and body image distortion among non-immigrants holds for 1st and 2nd generation immigrant adolescents, then one could argue that immigrant females may be at greater risk for experiencing overweight body image distortion and immigrant males may greater risk for underweight body image distortion compared to their 3rd generation-or-later peers. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immigrant adolescents represent a significant and growing proportion of the population in the United States. Yet, little is known about their experiences of body image distortion. This is particularly concerning given that body image distortion has been identified as a significant and modifiable risk factor for a number of mental illnesses, including depression and eating disorders. This study uses multi-level modeling to examine the associations between immigrant generational status, neighborhood immigrant concentration, sex, body dissatisfaction and risk for body image distortion. Data come from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and includes 10,962 11-19 year olds (49.6 % female). First generation immigrant females were significantly more likely than 3rd generation-or-later adolescents to experience underweight body image distortion. There was no association between neighborhood immigrant concentration and risk for body image distortion. Body dissatisfaction was associated with greater risk for underweight and overweight body image distortion, with the magnitude of underweight distortion risk significantly greater among 1st generation immigrants. Interventions that encourage the development of a healthy body image have the potential to reduce the onset and duration of body image distortion among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents.
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10964-015-0329-6 · 2.72 Impact Factor
"The obesity profile of the United States is changing with growing concern of becoming more racially and ethnically diverse  and gender focused [36, 37]. Previous reports highlight disparate effects of diabetes among minority populations [32, 33, 38] and individuals/families threatened by a lack of health insurance, and overt exposure to environmental influences. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The epidemic of diabetes continues leaving an enormous and growing burden of chronic disease to public health. This study investigates this growing burden of diabetes independent of increasing BMI in a large population based female sample, 2006–2010.
Serial cross-sectional data using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2006–2010 surveys from 1,168,418 women. Diabetes was assessed by self-report of a physician diagnosis, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported height and weight.
Almost 60% of women responders had a BMI > 25 (defined as overweight or obese). Diabetes was reported in 16% of respondents whose BMI > 25, and in 4% of respondents with reported BMI ≤ 25. Overall, 11% of the women in this sample reported being diagnosed with diabetes, of whom 83% had a BMI > 25. BMI, physical activity, age, and race were each independently associated with diabetes (p-value < 0.05). The odds of reported diabetes increased each year independent of BMI, physical activity, age, and race.
After adjusting for age, race, physical activity, and year of survey response, results indicate a threefold increase in diabetes among respondents with a BMI > 25 (OR = 3.57; 95% CI = 3.52-3.63). Potentially more alarming was a notable increase in odds of diabetes across the years of study among women, implying a near 30 percent projected increase in odds of diabetes diagnoses by 2020. This is likely due to advances in diagnosis and treatment but also highlights a burden of disease that will have a growing and sustained impact on public health and healthcare systems.
BMC Public Health 09/2014; 14(1):954. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-954 · 2.26 Impact Factor
"A recent review of echocardiographic studies shows that the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) remains high in most races and both genders despite advances in hypertension management over the past two decades. This high LVH incidence has coincided with an increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity over the previous three decades in the United States, across all gender, race and socioeconomic groups. Several studies have found associations between obesity,– body size,– adiposity, , and blood pressure, ,  and left ventricular mass (LVM), mass index (LVMI), or hypertrophy (LVH), while others have linked obesity and adiposity to relative wall thickness (RWT) and other measures of cardiac structure., "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To determine whether childhood body size, composition and blood pressure are associated with adult cardiac structure by estimating childhood “age of divergence.”
385 female and 312 male participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study had echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular mass, relative wall thickness, and interventricular septal thickness. Also available were anthropometric measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, percentage body fat, fat free mass, total body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, taken in both childhood and adulthood. The age of divergence is estimated as the lowest age at which childhood measurements are significantly different between patients with low and high measurements of adult cardiac structure.
Childhood body mass index is significantly associated with adult left ventricular mass (indexed by height) in men and women (ages of divergence: 7.5 years and 11.5 years, respectively), and with adult interventricular septal thickness in boys (age of divergence: 9 years). Childhood waist circumference indexed by height is associated with left ventricular mass (indexed by height) in boys (age of divergence: 8 years). Cardiac structure was in general not associated with childhood body composition and blood pressure.
Though results are affected by adult body size, composition and blood pressure, some aspects of adult cardiac structure may have their genesis in childhood body size.
PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106333. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106333 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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