Hepatic protection by glycyrrhizin and inhibition of iNOS expression in concanavalin A-induced liver injury in mice
Pharmacological Research Department, Minophagen Pharmaceutical Co., 2-2-3, Komatsubara, Zama, Kanagawa, 228-0002, Japan. Agents and Actions
(Impact Factor: 2.35).
04/2009; 58(9):593-9. DOI: 10.1007/s00011-009-0024-8
In this study, the possible protective effect of glycyrrhizin (GL), an active compound derived from licorice root, was examined on T cell-mediated liver injury in mice.
Mice were subjected to liver injury by intravenous injection of concanavalin A (Con A). They had been treated with GL (i.p.) 30 min before the injection. Liver injury was estimated by measuring serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and by examining liver sections with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein in the liver was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting.
Serum transaminases and hepatic iNOS levels increased with time after Con A treatment. Expression of iNOS mRNA in the liver was elevated for up to 8 h, and at 8 h, GL (ED(50): 10.5 mg/kg) suppressed the increases in AST and ALT in response to Con A. An increase in iNOS mRNA expression and protein was inhibited by treatment with GL. Furthermore, GL inhibited cell infiltration and the degeneration of hepatocytes in the liver of Con A-treated mice.
The present study suggests that the prevention by GL of Con A-induced hepatitis is due partly to the modulation of hepatic iNOS induction and of degeneration of hepatocytes.
Available from: Alessandro Federico
- "In animal studies, GL inhibits CD4+ T-cell and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) mediated cytotoxicity , activated NK cells and extrathymic T lymphocyte differentiation [94, 95], and promoted maturation of dendritic cells . "
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ABSTRACT: Complementary and alternative medicine soughts and encompasses a wide range of approaches; its use begun in ancient China at the time of Xia dynasty and in India during the Vedic period, but thanks to its long-lasting curative effect, easy availability, natural way of healing, and poor side-effects it is gaining importance throughout the world in clinical practice. We conducted a review describing the effects and the limits of using herbal products in chronic liver disease, focusing our attention on those most known, such as quercetin or curcumin. We tried to describe their pharmacokinetics, biological properties, and their beneficial effects (as antioxidant role) in metabolic, alcoholic, and viral hepatitis (considering that oxidative stress is the common pathway of chronic liver diseases of different etiology). The main limit of applicability of CAM comes from the lacking of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials giving a real proof of efficacy of those products, so that anecdotal success and personal experience are frequently the driving force for acceptance of CAM in the population.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2012; 2012(9):837939. DOI:10.1155/2012/837939 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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Journal of Surgical Research 11/2010; 165(1):e29-35. DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2010.10.004 · 1.94 Impact Factor
Available from: PubMed Central
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International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2011; 12(10):6529-43. DOI:10.3390/ijms12106529 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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