Article

A randomised, placebo-controlled, 24-week, study of low-dose extended-release methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Neurocenter, Saarland University Hospital, 66421, Homburg/Saar, Germany.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.36). 04/2009; DOI: 10.1007/s00406-009-0005-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Introduction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects many adults who had ADHD in childhood. Although stimulants and methylphenidate in particular are a common off-label treatment for adult patients with ADHD in European countries, little is known about their long-term efficacy and safety.

Methods
A randomized, 24-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design study of extended-release methylphenidate (MPH ER) in 359 adult individuals with ADHD according to DSM-IV. Standardized instruments were used for diagnosis. Treatment was started with MPH ER doses of 10 mg/day and titrated up to 60 mg/day, depending on individual efficacy and tolerability. Mean daily MPH SR dose was 0.55 mg/kg.

Results
Treatment with MPH ER resulted in clinical and statistically significant reductions of ADHD symptoms rated with the Wender-Reimherr adult attention deficit disorder scale (WRAADDS) and symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity according to DSM-IV, respectively. Improvements were maintained significant versus placebo up to week 24 of treatment. At endpoint, 61% of the subjects receiving MPH ER were rated as responders according to the a priori definition of response of more than 30% reduction of the WRAADDS score, compared to 42% in the placebo group. The second defined response criterion of much or very much improved on the clinical global impression scale (CGI) was fulfilled by 55% of subjects receiving MPH ER and 37% of subjects receiving placebo. MPH ER treatment was associated with a statistically significant increase of pulse at week 4 (72 bpm at baseline, 77 bpm at week 4). There were no significant differences of heart rate or blood pressure between treatment and placebo groups at any time point.

Discussion
MPH ER treatment in low to moderate doses was effective and safe in the treatment of ADHD in adults. Efficacy measures were clinical and statistically significant and robustly sustained during the 24-week observation period. In this study, no clinical significant effects on blood pressure but a transient increase of the heart rate were found. The interpretation of the results is limited by the low dose-range used in this study, the high drop-out rate and placebo-response which might have affected the therapeutic effect size.

1 Bookmark
 · 
95 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent findings support the role of purinergic system dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). The present study aimed to evaluate the pattern of serum uric acid levels in a sample of 98 BD I patients followed-up prospectively in a naturalistic study and treated with lithium monotherapy or in association with other mood stabilizers (valproate or carbamazepine), in relation to different phases of illness and to pharmacological treatment. The results showed that uric acid levels were significantly higher in patients suffering from a manic/mixed episode, than in those euthymic or during a depressive phase. Further, these levels were related to the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP) scale score for the severity of manic symptoms. A positive correlation was found also with male sex and with serum lithium levels. These findings suggest that a dysregulation of the purinergic system may occur during manic/mixed episodes, and they support a possible role of serum uric acid levels as a state-dependent marker of BD manic phases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.038 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract How to generalize from randomized placebo controlled trials of ADHD drug treatment in adults to ‘real-world’ clinical practice is intriguing. This open-labeled prospective observational study examined the effectiveness of long-term stimulant and non-stimulant medication in adult ADHD including dose, side-effects and comorbidity in a clinical setting. A specialized ADHD outpatient clinic gave previously non-medicated adults (n=250) with ADHD methylphenidate as first-line drug according to current guidelines. Patients who were non-tolerant or experiencing low efficacy were switched to amphetamine or atomoxetine. Primary outcomes were changes of ADHD-symptoms evaluated with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and overall severity by the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Secondary outcomes were measures of mental distress, and response on the Clinical-Global-Impressions-Improvement Scale. Data at baseline and follow-ups were compared in longitudinal mixed model analyses for time on-medication, dosage, comorbidity, and side-effects. As results, 232 patients (93%) completed examination at the 12 month endpoint, and 163 (70%) remained on medication. Compared with the patients who discontinued medication, those still on medication had greater percentage reduction in ASRS-scores (median 39%, versus 13%, P<0.001) and greater improvement of GAF (median 20% versus 4%, P<0.001) and secondary outcomes. Continued medication and higher cumulated doses showed significant associations to sustained improvement. Conversely, psychiatric comorbidity and side-effects were related to lower effectiveness and more frequent termination of medication. Taken together, one-year treatment with stimulants or atomoxetine was associated with a clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms and mental distress, and improvement of measured function. No serious adverse events were observed.
    European Neuropsychopharmacology 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.09.013 · 5.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent findings support the role of purinergic system dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). The present study aimed to evaluate the pattern of serum uric acid levels in a sample of 98 BD I patients followed-up prospectively in a naturalistic study and treated with lithium monotherapy or in association with other mood stabilizers (valproate or carbamazepine), in relation to different phases of illness and to pharmacological treatment. The results showed that uric acid levels were significantly higher in patients suffering from a manic/mixed episode, than in those euthymic or during a depressive phase. Further, these levels were related to the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP) scale score for the severity of manic symptoms. A positive correlation was found also with male sex and with serum lithium levels. These findings suggest that a dysregulation of the purinergic system may occur during manic/mixed episodes, and they support a possible role of serum uric acid levels as a state-dependent marker of BD manic phases.
    Psychiatry Research 12/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
22 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014