MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 S Greene St., Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.
European Radiology (Impact Factor: 4.34). 04/2009; 19(8):1875-81. DOI: 10.1007/s00330-009-1367-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To (a) determine the diagnostic performance of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (CT) trajectography for penetrating diaphragmatic injury (PDI), (b) determine the diagnostic performance of classic signs of diaphragmatic injury at 64-section multidetector CT, and (c) compare the performance of these signs with that of trajectography.Materials and Methods:This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study had institutional review board approval, with a waiver of the informed consent requirement. All patients who had experienced penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma, who had undergone preoperative 64-section multidetector CT of the chest and abdomen, and who had surgical confirmation of findings during a 2.5-year period were included in this study (25 male patients, two female patients; mean age, 32.6 years). After a training session, four trauma radiologists unaware of the surgical outcome independently reviewed all CT studies and scored the probability of PDI on a six-point scale. Collar sign, dependent viscera sign, herniation, contiguous injury on both sides of the diaphragm, discontinuous diaphragm sign, and transdiaphragmatic trajectory were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV). Accuracies were determined and receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed.Results:Sensitivities for detection of PDI by using 64-section multidetector CT with postprocessing software ranged from 73% to 100%, specificities ranged from 50% to 92%, NPVs ranged from 71% to 100%, PPVs ranged from 68% to 92%, and accuracies ranged from 70% to 89%. Discontinuous diaphragm, herniation, collar, and dependent viscera signs were highly specific (92%-100%) but nonsensitive (0%-60%). Contiguous injury was generally more sensitive (80%-93% vs 73%-100%) but less specific (50%-67% vs 83%-92%) than transdiaphragmatic trajectory when patients with multiple entry wounds were included in the analysis. Transdiaphragmatic trajectory was a much more sensitive sign of PDI than previously reported (73%-100% vs 36%), with NPVs ranging from 71% to 100% and PPVs ranging from 85% to 92%.Conclusion:Sixty-four-section multidetector CT trajectography facilitates the identification of transdiaphragmatic trajectory, which accurately rules in PDI when identified. Contiguous injury remains a highly sensitive sign, even when patients with multiple injuries are considered, and is useful for excluding PDI.© RSNA, 2013Supplemental material:
    Radiology 05/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diaphragmatic injury is an uncommon but clinically important entity in the setting of trauma. Computed tomography (CT) is widely used to evaluate hemodynamically stable trauma patients. While prior studies have identified CT signs of diaphragm injury in blunt or penetrating trauma, no study has directly compared signs across these two types of injuries. We identified patients with surgically proven diaphragm injuries who underwent CT at presentation. Three reviewers examined each for 12 signs of diaphragm injury, as well as for an overall impression of diaphragm injury. We reviewed a total of 84 patients (37 % blunt trauma, 63 % penetrating). The initial interpreting radiologists discovered 77 % of blunt and 47 % of penetrating injuries (p = 0.01). We found that the majority of signs of diaphragmatic injury were split between those common in blunt trauma and those common in penetrating trauma, with minimal overlap. The presence of at least one blunt injury sign has 90 % sensitivity for diaphragm injury in blunt trauma; the presence of a wound tract traversing the diaphragm has 92 % sensitivity in penetrating trauma. Inter-observer reliability of these signs is also high (κ > 0.65). Penetrating diaphragm injuries present a different spectrum of imaging findings from those in blunt trauma and are underdiagnosed at CT; looking for a wound tract traversing the diaphragm is highly sensitive for diaphragm injury in these cases. Signs of organ or diaphragm fragment displacement are sensitive for blunt diaphragm injuries, consistent with these injuries being caused by increased intra-abdominal pressure.
    Emergency Radiology 10/2013;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Penetrating injuries account for a large percentage of visits to emergency departments and trauma centers worldwide. Emergency laparotomy is the accepted standard of care in patients with a penetrating torso injury who are not hemodynamically stable and have a clinical indication for exploratory laparotomy, such as evisceration or gastrointestinal bleeding. Continuous advances in technology have made computed tomography (CT) an indispensable tool in the evaluation of many patients who are hemodynamically stable, have no clinical indication for exploratory laparotomy, and are candidates for conservative treatment. Multidetector CT may depict the trajectory of a penetrating injury and help determine what type of intervention is necessary on the basis of findings such as active arterial extravasation and major vascular, hollow viscus, or diaphragmatic injuries. Because multidetector CT plays an increasing role in the evaluation of patients with penetrating wounds to the torso, the radiologists who interpret these studies should be familiar with the CT findings that mandate intervention.
    Radiographics 03/2013; 33(2):341-59. · 2.79 Impact Factor