Rotavirus disease and prevention through vaccination.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 2.72). 05/2009; 28(4):355-62, quiz 363-4. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318199494a
Source: PubMed


Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis in children and is associated with substantial morbidity in the United States and morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Two orally administered vaccines, a live bovine reassortant vaccine (RV5; licensed in 2006) and a live attenuated human vaccine (RV1; licensed in 2008), are now being used in a universal infant vaccination program in the United States. There is already ecologic evidence and data from post-licensure effectiveness studies that this program will be an unequivocal success in reducing the impact of rotavirus disease. This overview presents the structure, pathogenesis, and mechanisms of natural immunity to rotavirus, key concepts in understanding the rationale behind vaccine-induced protection. The history of rotavirus vaccine development is also included, along with a discussion of the safety, efficacy, and recommended use of the approved vaccines.

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    • "Rotavirus has been recognized as one of the most common causes of acute infectious gastroenteritis (Marshall 2009) and the leading cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea in children (WHO 2007). Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis caused by rotaviruses have been reported in both infants and adults (Craun et al. 2010; Anderson and Weber 2004; Siqueira et al. 2010), and rotaviruses might be responsible for more than 50% of enteritis among infants worldwide (Fenner and White 1976). "
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