Alcohol craving scale based on three factors.
ABSTRACT Alcohol craving is a central aspect of alcoholism about which various explanatory theories and assessment questionnaires, based on such craving, have been developed. However, there are no instruments for the assessment of craving in line with the integrative hypotheses recently formulated that propose three types of craving: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and loss of control.
The construction and validation of a craving scale based on three factors. We expect to obtain a correlation between each factor and associated variables from prior studies. We also expect significant differences in craving between alcoholic individuals and controls.
The scale was administered to 209 alcohol-dependent subjects and 137 controls.
Alcohol Craving Scale Based on Three Factors (ACS-3F); Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Scale.
We confirmed the existence of the three factors initially proposed in the structure of the instrument, with high reliability. The relationship between the scale and the measures employed for its validation was confirmed. Adequate capacity of the scale to discriminate between the sample of alcoholics and the controls was observed.
The ACS-3F has adequate psychometric properties and may be useful in future research and in clinical practice.
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ABSTRACT: Addictive drugs act on brain reward systems, although the brain evolved to respond not to drugs but to natural rewards, such as food and sex. Appropriate responses to natural rewards were evolutionarily important for survival, reproduction, and fitness. In a quirk of evolutionary fate, humans discovered how to stimulate this system artificially with drugs. Many molecular features of neural systems instantiating reward, and of those systems affected by addictive drugs, are conserved across species from Drosophilae to rats to humans and include dopamine (DA), G-proteins, pro- tein kinases, amine transporters, and transcription factors such as cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). A better un- derstanding of natural brain reward systems will therefore en- hance understanding of the neural causation of addiction. Reinforcers, drives, and incentive systems It is first helpful to consider how the field has moved conceptually in recent decades. Although emotions are unobservable, many objective expressions and behavioral, physiological, and neural responses to emotional stimuli have been selected by evolution. Studies of these objective responses in animals and humans pro- vide valuable windows into brain reward function. Early drive theories held that hunger and thirst states motivated behavior directly as aversive drive states and that reinforcers simply re- duced those states, strengthening preceding stimulus-response (S-R) habits or increasing the probability of operant response emission. Rewards are recognized now to act at least as impor- tantly as hedonic incentives, causing neural representations that elicit motivation and goal pursuit, rather than as mere habit reinforcers. Physiological drive states nevertheless play important roles in incentive motivation, but primarily by increasing the perceived hedonic and incentive value of the corresponding re- ward; for example, food tastes better when hungry, drink when thirsty, and so on. Perhaps surprisingly, even drug reward and withdrawal appear to motivate drug-taking behavior primarily via incentive modulation principles rather than directly via simple aversive drives (Stewart and Wise, 1992). Accordingly, it be- hooves affective neuroscientists to understand the neural basis of incentive properties of rewards.Journal of Neuroscience 06/2002; 22(9):3306-11. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported that high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats exhibited selective deficits in active avoidance learning and that those deficits were partially reversed by moderate doses of ethanol under certain training conditions [Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 75 (2003) 89]. In that study, we hypothesized that HAD deficits resulted from exaggerated fear in the conditioning context and that the anxiolytic properties of ethanol, along with prior exposure to the conditioning apparatus, were responsible for the facilitated avoidance learning that was observed in HAD rats following moderate doses of ethanol. The current study was designed to test whether HAD rats exhibit behaviors consistent with increased fear in aversive learning contexts. We used a standard Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm to assess behavioral freezing in HAD (HAD-1 and HAD-2) and low-alcohol-drinking (LAD; LAD-1 and LAD-2) rats. No significant differences were observed between HAD-1 and HAD-2 or between LAD-1 and LAD-2 rats, indicating that the replicate lines performed similarly in this study. Both HAD and LAD rats exhibited robust fear conditioning during training. Although no differences were observed between HAD and LAD rats during fear training, HAD rats failed to extinguish freezing behavior in response to the discrete tone conditional stimulus during subsequent fear retention tests. Thus, HAD rats demonstrated prolonged cue-elicited fear that was resistant to extinction.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 10/2003; 76(2):223-30. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Craving has various meanings but can be defined generally in terms of a desire for the previously experienced effects of ethanol. Animal models provide a means by which to study the underlying mechanisms associated with craving and are most useful when they fulfill the requirements for predictive validity and reliability. Craving is a key part of the process of addiction that can lead to relapse and is conceptualized as having at least three components: preoccupation/anticipation, binge/intoxication and withdrawal/negative affect. Animal models of craving are hypothesized at this time to involve three domains of motivation to take drugs: excessive drinking, negative affective states and conditioned reinforcement. Excessive drinking includes the alcohol deprivation effect, drinking during withdrawal and drinking after a history of dependence. Models of the negative affective state include increases in brain reward thresholds, and conditioned reinforcement models include cue-induced resistance to extinction or cue-induced reinstatement. Experimental psychology is a rich resource of sensitive behavioral techniques by which to measure hypothetical constructs associated with the motivation to drink ethanol. Rigorous tests of predictive validity and reliability will be necessary to make them useful for understanding the neurobiology of craving and for the development of new medications for treating craving.Addiction 09/2000; 95 Suppl 2:S73-81. · 4.58 Impact Factor