Alcohol craving scale based on three factors.
ABSTRACT Alcohol craving is a central aspect of alcoholism about which various explanatory theories and assessment questionnaires, based on such craving, have been developed. However, there are no instruments for the assessment of craving in line with the integrative hypotheses recently formulated that propose three types of craving: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and loss of control.
The construction and validation of a craving scale based on three factors. We expect to obtain a correlation between each factor and associated variables from prior studies. We also expect significant differences in craving between alcoholic individuals and controls.
The scale was administered to 209 alcohol-dependent subjects and 137 controls.
Alcohol Craving Scale Based on Three Factors (ACS-3F); Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Scale.
We confirmed the existence of the three factors initially proposed in the structure of the instrument, with high reliability. The relationship between the scale and the measures employed for its validation was confirmed. Adequate capacity of the scale to discriminate between the sample of alcoholics and the controls was observed.
The ACS-3F has adequate psychometric properties and may be useful in future research and in clinical practice.
- SourceAvailable from: Peggy Schmidt[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present study examined whether craving as measured by the obsessive-compulsive drinking scale (OCDS) predict long-term outcome in alcohol-dependent inpatients. This was a 24-month prospective, observational study in 198 alcohol-dependent inpatients treated under standardized conditions. The primary outcome criterion was abstinence, defined as no subjective report or objective indication of alcohol consumption since discharge from treatment. The patients self-rated their craving for alcohol at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups by using the German version of the OCDS, which measures obsessive and compulsive aspects of craving. Univariate and logistic regression analyses with covariates were performed. Of the 104 patients interviewed at the 24-month follow-up, 60% (n = 62) were abstinent. We found significant associations between total OCDS scores at 6 months and outcome at 12 months and between total OCDS scores at 12 months and outcome at 24 months: the higher the OCDS total score at one follow-up evaluation, the less likely patients were to be abstinent at the subsequent one. The same association was found for each of the two OCDS subscales, control and consequences and drinking obsessions. These results support earlier findings that OCDS scores can predict outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. This information can be used for the timely development of protective resources. Hence, decisions over the use of resources can be made on the basis of objectified parameters to develop a personalized treatment concept. Consequently, economic considerations can induce a reduction of high medical costs.Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy 06/2011; 6:14. · 1.16 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cue modulation of the startle reflex is a paradigm that has been used to understand the emotional mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence. Attenuation of the startle reflex has been demonstrated when alcohol-dependent subjects are exposed to alcohol-related stimuli. However, the role of clinical variables on the magnitude of this response is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between a number of clinical variables-severity of alcoholism, family history of alcoholism (FHA+), personality traits related to the sensitivity to reward-and the startle reflex response when subjects with alcohol dependence were viewing alcohol-related cues. After detoxification, 98 participants completed self-report instruments and had eye blink electromyograms measured to acoustic startle probes [100-millisecond burst of white noise at 95 dB(A)] while viewing alcohol-related pictures, and standardised appetitive, aversive and neutral control scenes. Ninety-eight healthy controls were also assessed with the same instruments. There were significant differences on alcohol-startle magnitude between patients and controls. Comparisons by gender showed that women perceived alcohol cues and appetitive cues more appetitive than men. Male and female patients showed more appetitive responses to alcohol cues when compared with their respective controls. Our patients showed an appetitive effect of alcohol cues that was positively related to severity of alcohol dependence, sensitivity to reward and a FHA+. The data confirmed that the pattern of the modulation of the acoustic startle reflex reveals appetitive effects of the alcohol cues and extended it to a variety of clinical variables.Addiction Biology 10/2011; · 5.91 Impact Factor
Article: Measurement of alcohol craving.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite considerable research activity and application in treatment, the construct of craving remains poorly understood. We propose that cravings and urges are cognitive-emotional events in time, characterised by frequency, duration, intensity and salience. Commonly used measures of alcohol craving are reviewed, and their strengths and weaknesses identified. Most measures confound craving with behaviours, or with separable cognitive phenomena such as expectancies, intentions, or perceived behavioural control. These confounds have limited our advances in understanding the determinants and consequences of craving. Based on the criteria applied in this review, among the better performing multi-item measures are the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale and Obsessive subscale of the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale. Optimal assessment strategies are likely to involve daily assessments of peak intensity of cravings, desires or urges and of the frequency and duration of craving episodes. Of particular interest are measures of intensity at times when individuals are at risk of drinking or of other functional impacts from craving.Addictive behaviors 09/2012; · 2.25 Impact Factor