p90 ribosomal S6 kinase and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase link phosphorylation of the eukaryotic chaperonin containing TCP-1 to growth factor, insulin, and nutrient signaling.
ABSTRACT Chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) is a large multisubunit complex that mediates protein folding in eukaryotic cells. CCT participates in the folding of newly synthesized polypeptides, including actin, tubulin, and several cell cycle regulators; therefore, CCT plays an important role in cytoskeletal organization and cell division. Here we identify the chaperonin CCT as a novel physiological substrate for p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K). RSK phosphorylates the beta subunit of CCT in response to tumor promoters or growth factors that activate the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. CCTbeta Ser-260 was identified as the RSK site by mass spectrometry and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. RSK-dependent Ser-260 phosphorylation was sensitive to the MEK inhibitor UO126 and the RSK inhibitor BID-1870. Insulin weakly activates RSK but strongly activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and utilizes S6K to regulate CCTbeta phosphorylation. Thus, the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR pathways converge on CCTbeta Ser-260 phosphorylation in response to multiple agonists in various mammalian cells. We also show that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of endogenous CCTbeta causes impaired cell proliferation that can be rescued with ectopically expressed murine CCTbeta wild-type or phosphomimetic mutant S260D, but not the phosphorylation-deficient mutant S260A. Although the molecular mechanism of CCTbeta regulation remains unclear, our findings demonstrate a link between oncogene and growth factor signaling and chaperonin CCT-mediated cellular activities.
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ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) deficiency in mice was previously reported to result in a transiently retarded granule cell migration at postnatal day 8 (P8) and a sustained disturbed arborization of Purkinje cell dendrites from P8 on, concomitant with a delayed synapse formation between granule cells and Purkinje cells and resulting in mild deficits in motor performance in adult animals. However, the molecular mechanisms by which MMP-3 contributes to proper development of the cerebellar cortex during the first postnatal weeks remains unknown. In this study, we used a functional proteomics approach to investigate alterations in protein expression in postnatal cerebella of wild-type versus MMP-3 deficient mice, and to further elucidate MMP-3-dependent pathways and downstream targets in vivo. At P8, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry identified 20 unique proteins with a different expression between the two genotypes. Subsequent ‘Ingenuity Pathway Analysis’ (IPA) analysis and Western blotting indicate that the chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide 1, subunit 6A (CCT6a) and the MAP kinase signaling pathway play a key role in the MMP-3-dependent regulation of neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration in the developing brain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reservedDevelopmental Neurobiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/dneu.22272 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic chaperonin TRiC/CCT uses ATP cycling to fold many essential proteins that other chaperones cannot fold. This 1 MDa hetero-oligomer consists of two identical stacked rings assembled from eight paralogous subunits, each containing a conserved ATP-binding domain. Here, we report a dramatic asymmetry in the ATP utilization cycle of this ring-shaped chaperonin, despite its apparently symmetric architecture. Only four of the eight different subunits bind ATP at physiological concentrations. ATP binding and hydrolysis by the low-affinity subunits is fully dispensable for TRiC function in vivo. The conserved nucleotide-binding hierarchy among TRiC subunits is evolutionarily modulated through differential nucleoside contacts. Strikingly, high- and low-affinity subunits are spatially segregated within two contiguous hemispheres in the ring, generating an asymmetric power stroke that drives the folding cycle. This unusual mode of ATP utilization likely serves to orchestrate a directional mechanism underlying TRiC/CCT's unique ability to fold complex eukaryotic proteins.Cell Reports 10/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2012.08.036 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase, orchestrates cellular responses to growth, metabolic and stress signals. mTOR processes various extracellular and intracellular inputs as part of two mTOR protein complexes, mTORC1 or mTORC2. The mTORCs have numerous cellular targets but members of a family of protein kinases, the protein kinase (PK)A/PKG/PKC (AGC) family are the best characterized direct mTOR substrates. The AGC kinases control multiple cellular functions and deregulation of many members of this family underlies numerous pathological conditions. mTOR phosphorylates conserved motifs in these kinases to allosterically augment their activity, influence substrate specificity, and promote protein maturation and stability. Activation of AGC kinases in turn triggers the phosphorylation of diverse, often overlapping, targets that ultimately control cellular response to a wide spectrum of stimuli. This review will highlight recent findings on how mTOR regulates AGC kinases and how mTOR activity is feedback regulated by these kinases. We will discuss how this regulation can modulate downstream targets in the mTOR pathway that could account for the varied cellular functions of mTOR.Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 12/2011; 46(6):527-47. DOI:10.3109/10409238.2011.618113 · 5.81 Impact Factor