Adeno-associated virus vector-mediated expression and constitutive secretion of galanin suppresses limbic seizure activity.
ABSTRACT Theoretically, gene therapy techniques offer an attractive alternative treatment option for intractable, focal epilepsies. Although logical gene therapy targets include excitatory and inhibitory receptors, variable viral vector tropism interjects an uncertainty as to the direction of change, seizure suppression, or seizure sensitization. To circumvent this therapeutic liability, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been constructed where the gene product is constitutively secreted from the transduced cell. Using AAV vectors, the fibronectin secretory signal sequence (FIB) was placed in front of the coding sequence for green fluorescent protein or the active portion of the neuroactive peptide galanin (GAL). Subsequent studies showed that these vectors supported expression and constitutive secretion of these gene products from transfected cells in vitro. More importantly, upon transduction in vivo, AAV-FIB-GAL vectors significantly attenuated focal seizure sensitivity, and this seizure attenuation could be controlled in vivo by using a tetracycline-regulated promoter. The expression and constitutive secretion of green fluorescent protein, or the expression of GAL alone, exerted no effect on focal seizure sensitivity. Moreover, unilateral infusion of the AAV-FIB-GAL vectors into the hippocampus prevented kainic acid-induced hilar cell death. With regard to limbic seizures, bilateral infusion of AAV-FIB-GAL vectors into the piriform cortex prevented both behavioral and localized electrographic seizure activity after the peripheral administration of kainic acid. Also, when rats were electrically kindled to class V seizure activity, subsequent infusion of AAV-FIB-GAL proved capable of significantly elevating the seizure initiation threshold. Thus, these studies clearly demonstrate the anti-seizure effectiveness of AAV vector-mediated expression and constitutive secretion of galanin.
SourceAvailable from: Thomas J Mccown[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) provides a promising platform for clinical treatment of neurological disorders owing to its established efficacy and lack of apparent pathogenicity. To use viral vectors in treating neurological disease, however, transduction must occur under neuropathological conditions. Previous studies in rodents have shown that AAV5 more efficiently transduces cells in the hippocampus and piriform cortex than AAV2. Using the kainic acid (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy and AAV2 and 5 carrying a hybrid chicken β-actin promoter driving green fluorescent protein (GFP), we found that limbic seizure activity caused substantial neuropathology and resulted in a significant reduction in subsequent AAV5 transduction. Nonetheless, this reduced transduction still was greater than AAV2 transduction in control rats. Although KA seizures compromise blood-brain barrier function, potentially increasing exposure of target tissue to circulating neutralizing antibodies, we observed no interaction between KA seizure-induced damage and immunization status on AAV transduction. Finally, while we confirmed the near total neuronal-specific transgene expression for both serotypes in control rats, AAV5-GFP expression was increasingly localized to astrocytes in seizure-damaged areas. Thus, the pathological milieu of the injured brain can reduce transduction efficacy and alter viral tropism- both relevant concerns when considering viral vector gene therapy for neurological disorders.Gene therapy 04/2011; 18(10):961-8. DOI:10.1038/gt.2011.49 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. These seizures are due to abnormal excessive and synchronous neuronal activity in the brain caused by a disruption of the delicate balance between excitation and inhibition. Neuropeptides can contribute to such misbalance by modulating the effect of classical excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. In this review, we discuss 21 different neuropeptides that have been linked to seizure disorders. These neuropeptides show an aberrant expression and/or release in animal seizure models and/or epilepsy patients. Many of these endogenous peptides, like adrenocorticotropic hormone, angiotensin, cholecystokinin, cortistatin, dynorphin, galanin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, neurotensin, somatostatin, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone, are able to suppress seizures in the brain. Other neuropeptides, such as arginine-vasopressine peptide, corticotropin-releasing hormone, enkephalin, β-endorphin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, and tachykinins have proconvulsive properties. For oxytocin and melanin-concentrating hormone both pro- and anticonvulsive effects have been reported, and this seems to be dose or time dependent. All these neuropeptides and their receptors are interesting targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs. Other neuropeptides such as nesfatin-1 and vasoactive intestinal peptide have been less studied in this field; however, as nesfatin-1 levels change over the course of epilepsy, this can be considered as an interesting marker to diagnose patients who have suffered a recent epileptic seizure.Molecular Neurobiology 04/2014; 50(2). DOI:10.1007/s12035-014-8669-x · 5.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dam's milk (Group A) or by oral gavage (Group B), supplemented just during suckling (Group C) and control animals (Group D) was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip(®) Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix). Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX software package v10.0.2 and lead to the identification of 89 genes differentially expressed in all three dietary approaches. Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1), galanin (Gal), synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2), actin gamma 2 (Actg2) and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2), as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. Gene underexpression was confirmed by Real-Time RT-PCR. Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life.BMC Genomics 04/2011; 12(1):182. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-12-182 · 4.04 Impact Factor