Inflammatory cytokines and the GH/IGF-I axis: novel actions on bone growth.

The Roslin Institute and Royal School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK.
Cell Biochemistry and Function (Impact Factor: 1.85). 05/2009; 27(3):119-27. DOI: 10.1002/cbf.1551
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Longitudinal bone growth is a tightly regulated process that relies on complex synchronized mechanisms at the growth plate. Chronic paediatric inflammatory diseases are well accepted to lead to growth retardation and this is likely due to raised inflammatory cytokine levels and reduced growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) signalling. The precise cellular mechanisms responsible for this inhibition are unclear and therefore in this article, we will review the potential interactions between inflammatory cytokines and the GH/IGF-I axis in the regulation of bone growth. In particular, we will emphasis the potential contribution of the suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins, and in particular SOCS2, in mediating this process.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endochondral bone formation occurs when mesenchymal cells condense to differentiate into chondrocytes, the primary cell types of cartilage. The aim of the present study was to identify novel factors regulating chondrogenesis. We investigated whether kaempferol induces chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Kaempferol treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol-treated ATDC5 cells stained more intensely with alcian blue staining than control cells, suggesting greater synthesis of matrix proteoglycans in the kaempferol-treated cells. Similarly, kaempferol induced greater activation of alkaline phosphatase activity than control cells, and it enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes, such as collagen type I, collagen type X, OCN, Runx2, and Sox9. Kaempferol induced an acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-jun N-terminal kinase or p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK, decreased in stained cells treated with kaempferol. Furthermore, kaempferol greatly expressed the protein and mRNA levels of BMP-2, suggesting chondrogenesis was stimulated via a BMP-2 pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that kaempferol has chondromodulating effects via an ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for bone growth disorders.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 08/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest a role of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis in the pathophysiology of primary osteoarthritis (OA). A common polymorphism of the GH receptor (exon 3 deletion, d3-GHR) is associated with increased GH/IGF-1 activity. OBJECTIVE: To study associations between the d3-GHR polymorphism and symptomatic OA. METHODS: In the GARP (Genetics, osteoARthritis and Progression) study, we compared the d3-GHR polymorphism between OA patients and controls. GARP patients were genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms encompassing the d3-GHR gene, using rs4590183 as proxy for d3-GHR (pairwise r(2)=1). Binary logistic regression models with robust SEs were performed, stratified by sex. For replication, rs4590183 was tested in three additional cohorts. Fixed- and random-effects combined analyses were performed. RESULTS: In female GARP patients with severe familial OA, d3-GHR was associated with OA (adjusted OR 1.36 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.83), p=0.043), independently of age and body mass index. Combined analysis of all studies showed suggestive evidence for association between d3-GHR and OA (OR=1.17 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.30), p=0.008). Evidence was strongest in hip OA cases, without any evidence for heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: In women, the d3-GHR polymorphism was associated with symptomatic OA, especially at the hip site.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose Puberty, obesity, endocrine and chronic systemic diseases are known to be associated with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). The mechanical insufficiency of the physis in SCFE is thought to be the result of an abnormal weakening of the physis. However, the mechanism at the cellular level has not been unravelled up to now. Methods To understand the pathophysiology of endocrine and metabolic factors acting on the physis, we performed a systematic review focussing on published studies reporting on hormonal, morphological and cellular abnormalities of the physis in children with SCFE. In addition, we looked for studies of the effects of endocrinopathies on the human physis which can lead to cause SCFE and focussed in detail on hormonal signalling, hormone receptor expression and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of the physis. We searched in the PubMed, and The Cochrane Library (via Wiley) databases from inception to 11th September 2012. The search generated a total of 689 references: 382 in PubMed, 232 in and 75 in The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicate papers, 525 papers remained. Of these, 119 were selected based on titles and abstracts. After excluding 63 papers not related to the human physis, 56 papers were included in this review. Results Activation of the gonadal axis and the subsequent augmentation of the activity of the growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH-IGF-1) axis are important for the pubertal growth spurt, as well as for cessation of the physis at the end of puberty. The effects of leptin, thyroid hormone and corticosteroids on linear growth and on the physis are also discussed. Children with chronic diseases suffer from inflammation, acidosis and malnutrition. These consequences of chronic diseases affect the GH-IGF-1 axis, thereby, increasing the risk of the development of SCFE. The risk of SCFE and avascular necrosis in children with chronic renal insufficiency, growth hormone treatment and renal osteodystrophy remains equivocal. Conclusions SCFE is most likely the result of a multi-factorial event during adolescence when height and weight increase dramatically and the delicate balance between the various hormonal equilibria can be disturbed. Up to now, there are no screening or diagnostic tests available to predict patients at risk.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 06/2013; 7(3).