Alzheimer’s dementia and post-traumatic stress disorder differences and similarities in neuroimaging
ABSTRACT There are studies supporting the suggestion that a severe psychological stress in the elderly can be the risk factor of Alzheimer's dementia (AB) and other types of dementia. We have reviewed the findings of single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), related to brain function and structure in AD and in post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is evidence that prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices dysfunction contributes to PTSD symptomatology. Similarities between the two different aforementioned diseases exist in the areas of (a) medial temporal lobe, (b) hippocampus and (c) cingulated cortex.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To explore the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dementia in older veterans. Administrative database study of individuals seen within one regional division of the Veterans Affairs healthcare network. Veterans Integrated Service Network 16. Veterans aged 65 and older who had a diagnosis of PTSD or who were recipients of a Purple Heart (PH) and a comparison group of the same age with no PTSD diagnosis or PH were divided into four groups: those with PTSD and no PH (PTSD+/PH-, n=3,660), those with PH and no PTSD (PTSD-/PH+, n=1,503), those with PTSD and a PH (PTSD+/PH+, n=153), and those without PTSD or a PH (PTSD-/PH-, n=5,165). Incidence and prevalence of dementia after controlling for confounding factors in multivariate logistic regression. The PTSD+/PH- group had a significantly higher incidence and prevalence of dementia than the groups without PTSD with or without a PH. The prevalence and incidence of a dementia diagnosis remained two times as high in the PTSD+/PH- group as in the PTSD-/PH+ or PTSD-/PH- group after adjusting for the confounding factors. There were no statistically significant differences between the other groups. The incidence and prevalence of dementia is greater in veterans with PTSD. It is unclear whether this is due to a common risk factor underlying PTSD and dementia or to PTSD being a risk factor for dementia. Regardless, this study suggests that veterans with PTSD should be screened more closely for dementia. Because PTSD is so common in veterans, this association has important implications for veteran care.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 09/2010; 58(9):1627-33. DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.02977.x · 4.22 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While the actions of glucocorticoids on brain function have been comprehensively studied, understanding of the underlying genomic mechanisms is advancing slowly. Recently, it was found that p11 is associated with traumatic stress and depression, and glucocorticoids regulate expression of the p11 gene. The ligand-activated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) interacts with two glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) in the p11 promoter region to up-regulate the p11 gene. RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, and mutation of GREs both block glucocorticoid-induced p11 over-expression, suggesting that glucocorticoid-induced p11 over-expression is mediated by GR and GREs. Thus, the p11 gene can be transcriptionally activated. There is evidence that this transcriptional activation is mediated by the remodeling of chromatin complexes in response to glucocorticoid receptor-regulated promotors. The regulation of eukaryotic gene expression by chromatin remodeling is complex and is essential for numerous cellular processes. The association of linker-histone, non-histone and heterochromatin-specific proteins plays a key role in the generation of higher-order chromatin structures. Understanding the chromatin remodeling involved in the glucocorticoid-mediated increase of p11 expression by stress may clarify stress-induced over-expression of p11 and also identify a new therapeutic target for post-traumatic disorder and depressive disorders, i.e., chromatin remodeling.Medical Hypotheses 02/2011; 76(6):774-7. DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2011.02.015 · 1.07 Impact Factor
- Medical Hypotheses 02/2011; · 1.07 Impact Factor