Abscisic acid activates the murine microglial cell line N9 through the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose.
ABSTRACT Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone regulating important functions in higher plants, notably responses to abiotic stress. Recently, chemical or physical stimulation of human granulocytes was shown to induce production and release of endogenous ABA, which activates specific cell functions. Here we provide evidence that ABA stimulates several functional activities of the murine microglial cell line N9 (NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, cell migration) through the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose and an increase of intracellular calcium. ABA production and release occur in N9 cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, phorbol myristate acetate, the chemoattractant peptide f-MLP, or beta-amyloid, the primary plaque component in Alzheimer disease. Finally, ABA priming stimulates N9 cell migration toward beta-amyloid. These results indicate that ABA is a pro-inflammatory hormone inducing autocrine microglial activation, potentially representing a new target for anti-inflammatory therapies aimed at limiting microglia-induced tissue damage in the central nervous system.
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ABSTRACT: Chemokines are a family of small proteins involved in cellular migration and intercellular communication. Although the chemokines and their receptors are located throughout the brain, they are not distributed uniformly. Among the chemokines and their receptors that are arrayed disproportionately in glia and neurons are monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), fractalkine/CX3C chemokine ligand 1, interferon-gamma-inducible-protein-10/CXCL10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha/CCL3, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted/CCL5. In the brain, they are found in the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, limbic system, hippocampus, thalamus, cortex, and cerebellum. The uneven distribution suggests that there may be functional roles for the chemokine "system," comprised of chemokine ligands and their receptors. In addition to anatomical, immunohistochemical, and in vitro studies establishing the expression of the chemokine ligands and receptors, there is an increasing body of research that suggests that the chemokine system plays a crucial role in brain development and function. Our data indicate that the chemokine system can alter the actions of neuronally active pharmacological agents including the opioids and cannabinoids. Combined with evidence that the chemokine system in the brain interacts with neurotransmitter systems, we propose the following hypothesis: The endogenous chemokine system in the brain acts in concert with the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems to govern brain function. The chemokine system can thus be thought of as the third major transmitter system in the brain.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 01/2006; 78(6):1204-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cyclic ADP-ribose is believed to be an important calcium-mobilizing second messenger in invertebrate, mammalian and plant cells. CD38, the best-characterized mammalian ADP-ribosyl cyclase, is postulated to be an important source of cyclic ADP-ribose in vivo. Using CD38-deficient mice, we demonstrate that the loss of CD38 renders mice susceptible to bacterial infections due to an inability of CD38-deficient neutrophils to directionally migrate to the site of infection. Furthermore, we show that cyclic ADP-ribose can directly induce intracellular Ca++ release in neutrophils and is required for sustained extracellular Ca++ influx in neutrophils that have been stimulated by the bacterial chemoattractant, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Finally, we demonstrate that neutrophil chemotaxis to fMLP is dependent on Ca++ mobilization mediated by cyclic ADP-ribose. Thus, CD38 controls neutrophil chemotaxis to bacterial chemoattractants through its production of cyclic ADP-ribose, and acts as a critical regulator of inflammation and innate immune responses.Nature Medicine 10/2001; 7(11):1209-1216. · 22.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered the principal initiators of immune response because of their ability to migrate into peripheral tissues and lymphoid organs, process antigens, and activate naive T cells. There is evidence that extracellular nucleotides regulate certain functions of DCs via G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors (P2YR) and ion-channel-gated P2X receptors (P2XR). Here we investigated the chemotactic activity and analyzed the migration-associated intracellular signaling events such as actin reorganization and Ca(++) transients induced by common P2R agonists such as adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate, the P2YR agonists UTP and adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), or the P2XR agonists alphabeta-methylenadenosine-5'-triphosphate and 2',3'-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP. The common P2R agonists and the selective P2YR agonists turned out to be potent chemotactic stimuli for immature DCs, but not for mature DCs. In contrast, P2XR agonists had only marginal chemotactic activity in both DC types. Chemotaxis was paralleled by a rise in the intracellular Ca(++) concentration and by actin polymerization. Studies with pertussis toxin implicated that intracellular signaling events such as actin polymerization, mobilization of intracellular Ca(++), and migration induced by nucleotides was mediated via G(i/o) protein-coupled P2YR. Moreover, functional studies revealed selective down-regulation of this G(i/o) protein-coupled chemotactic P2YR responsiveness during maturation, although immature and mature DCs expressed similar amounts of mRNA for the P2R subtypes (P2Y(2)R, P2Y(4)R, P2Y(5)R, P2Y(7)R, P2Y(11)R and P2X(1)R, P2X(4)R, P2X(7)R), and no major differences in respect to the mRNA expression of these receptors could be observed by semiquantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In summary, our data describe a differential chemotactic response of immature and mature DCs to nucleotides, and lend further support to the hypothesis that P2R are a novel class of immunomodulatory plasma membrane receptors suitable for pharmacological intervention.Blood 09/2002; 100(3):925-32. · 9.06 Impact Factor