Identification of gene networks associated with erythroid differentiation.
ABSTRACT Erythropoiesis is a multistep process involving a large number of genes, which balance between proliferation, differentiation and survival of the erythroid cells. To understand the molecular mechanisms of erythropoiesis and related pathological aberrations, we analyzed three stages of in vitro differentiating human erythroid cells by expression profiling. We identified distinct clusters of genes, each with a unique expression pattern during differentiation. As JAK2 was shown to play a central role in myeloproliferative disorders, we focused on one cluster which includes JAK2 and other genes with high correlation to JAK2 expression. These genes had a low expression at the early erythroblast which increased in the intermediate stage and further slightly increased in the last stage of differentiation. Our results indicate that gene networks may associate with JAK2 expression in erythroid differentiation. It is intriguing to determine whether the pathogenesis of polycythemia vera (PV), harboring a common or uncommon JAK2 mutation, involves alterations in independent gene pathways that underlie the normal erythropoietic process.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a significant part of infiltrating inflammatory cells that are frequently correlated with progression and poor prognosis of a variety of cancers. Tumor cell-produced human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) has been associated with TAM trafficking in oral cancer; however, its involvement in tumor-related inflammatory processes remains largely unknown. METHODOLOGY: The relationship between hBD-3, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), TAMs, and CCR2 was examined using immunofluorescence microscopy in normal and oral carcinoma in situ biopsy specimens. The ability of hBD-3 to chemoattract host macrophages in vivo using a nude mouse model and analysis of hBD-3 on monocytic cell migration in vitro, applying a cross-desensitization strategy of CCR2 and its pharmacological inhibitor (RS102895), respectively, was also carried out. CONCLUSIONS/FINDINGS: MCP-1, the most frequently expressed tumor cell-associated chemokine, was not produced by tumor cells nor correlated with the recruitment of macrophages in oral carcinoma in situ lesions. However, hBD-3 was associated with macrophage recruitment in these lesions and hBD-3-expressing tumorigenic cells induced massive tumor infiltration of host macrophages in nude mice. HBD-3 stimulated the expression of tumor-promoting cytokines, including interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, IL-8, CCL18, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in macrophages derived from human peripheral blood monocytes. Monocytic cell migration in response to hBD-3 was inhibited by cross-desensitization with MCP-1 and the specific CCR2 inhibitor, RS102895, suggesting that CCR2 mediates monocyte/macrophage migration in response to hBD-3. Collectively, these results indicate that hBD-3 utilizes CCR2 to regulate monocyte/macrophage trafficking and may act as a tumor cell-produced chemoattractant to recruit TAMs. This novel mechanism is the first evidence of an hBD molecule orchestrating an in vivo outcome and demonstrates the importance of the innate immune system in the development of tumors.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(6):e10993. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blood transfusion is indispensable for modern medicine. In developed countries, the blood supply is adequate and safe but blood for alloimmunized patients is often unavailable. Concerns are increasing that donations may become inadequate in the future as the population ages prompting a search for alternative transfusion products. Improvements in culture conditions and proof-of-principle studies in animal models have suggested that ex-vivo expanded red cells may represent such a product. Compared to other cell therapies transfusion poses the unique challenge of requiring great cell doses (2.5×10(12) cells vs 10(7) cells). Although production of such cell numbers is theoretically possible, current technologies generate red cells in numbers sufficient only for safety studies. It is conceived that by the time these studies will be completed, technical barriers to mass cell production will have been eliminated making transfusion with ex-vivo generated red cells a reality.Blood reviews 12/2011; 26(2):81-95. · 7.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The fetal and adult globin genes in the human β-globin cluster on chromosome 11 are sequentially expressed to achieve normal hemoglobin switching during human development. The pharmacological induction of fetal γ-globin (HBG) to replace abnormal adult sickle βS-globin is a successful strategy to treat sickle cell disease; however the molecular mechanism of γ-gene silencing after birth is not fully understood. Therefore, we performed global gene expression profiling using primary erythroid progenitors grown from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to characterize gene expression patterns during the γ-globin to β-globin (γ/β) switch observed throughout in vitro erythroid differentiation. We confirmed erythroid maturation in our culture system using cell morphologic features defined by Giemsa staining and the γ/β-globin switch by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis. We observed maximal γ-globin expression at day 7 with a switch to a predominance of β-globin expression by day 28 and the γ/β-globin switch occurred around day 21. Expression patterns for transcription factors including GATA1, GATA2, KLF1 and NFE2 confirmed our system produced the expected pattern of expression based on the known function of these factors in globin gene regulation. Subsequent gene expression profiling was performed with RNA isolated from progenitors harvested at day 7, 14, 21, and 28 in culture. Three major gene profiles were generated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). For profile-1 genes, where expression decreased from day 7 to day 28, we identified 2,102 genes down-regulated > 1.5-fold. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) for profile-1 genes demonstrated involvement of the Cdc42, phospholipase C, NF-Kβ, Interleukin-4, and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Transcription factors known to be involved in γ-and β-globin regulation were identified.The same approach was used to generate profile-2 genes where expression was up-regulated over 28 days in culture. IPA for the 2,437 genes with > 1.5-fold induction identified the mitotic roles of polo-like kinase, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, cell cycle control, and ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein) signaling pathways; transcription factors identified included KLF1, GATA1 and NFE2 among others. Finally, profile-3 was generated from 1,579 genes with maximal expression at day 21, around the time of the γ/β-globin switch. IPA identified associations with cell cycle control, ATM, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathways. The transcriptome analysis completed with erythroid progenitors grown in vitro identified groups of genes with distinct expression profiles, which function in metabolic pathways associated with cell survival, hematopoiesis, blood cells activation, and inflammatory responses. This study represents the first report of a transcriptome analysis in human primary erythroid progenitors to identify transcription factors involved in hemoglobin switching. Our results also demonstrate that the in vitro liquid culture system is an excellent model to define mechanisms of global gene expression and the DNA-binding protein and signaling pathways involved in globin gene regulation.BMC Genomics 04/2012; 13:153. · 4.40 Impact Factor