Adolescent and Young Adult Vegetarianism: Better Dietary Intake and Weight Outcomes but Increased Risk of Disordered Eating Behaviors
ABSTRACT Examine characteristics of current and former adolescent and young adult vegetarians and investigate the relationships between vegetarianism, weight, dietary intake, and weight-control behaviors.
Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT-II: Eating Among Teens).
Participants completed a mailed survey and food frequency questionnaire in 2004.
Males and females (n=2,516), ages 15-23 years.
Weight status, dietary intake (fruit, vegetables, fat, calories), unhealthful weight-control behaviors.
Multiple regression models controlling for socioeconomic status and sex were used to test for significant differences between current, former, and never vegetarians within the younger and older cohort.
Participants were identified as current (4.3%), former (10.8%), and never (84.9%) vegetarians. Current vegetarians in the younger and older cohorts had healthier dietary intakes than nonvegetarians with regard to fruits, vegetables, and fat. Among young adults, current vegetarians were less likely than never vegetarians to be overweight or obese. Adolescent and young adult current vegetarians were more likely to report binge eating with loss of control when compared to nonvegetarians. Among adolescents, former vegetarians were more likely than never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Among young adults, former vegetarians were more likely than current and never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors.
Adolescent and young adult vegetarians may experience the health benefits associated with increased fruit and vegetable intake and young adults may experience the added benefit of decreased risk for overweight and obesity. However, current vegetarians may be at increased risk for binge eating with loss of control, while former vegetarians may be at increased risk for extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. It would be beneficial for clinicians to inquire about current and former vegetarian status when assessing risk for disordered eating behaviors.
SourceAvailable from: hsepubl.lib.hse.fi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using a unique dataset of 1341 firms with foreign ownership registered in Russia, this paper examines how foreign ownership strategies in Russia are influenced by the corruption distance between the home country and Russia. It also examines how anti-corruption regulation in the home country affects the modal choice. Based on transaction cost and resource-based theories, the modal choice is viewed as a trade-off between the benefits and costs of having a local partner. In the case of Russia, the benefits were found to exceed the costs, as corruption distance and anti-corruption legislation in force in the home country are positively related to shared ownership.Journal of International Management 06/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.intman.2011.10.002 · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To explore and describe philosophies and characteristics of intensive eating disorder (ED) treatment programs based in tertiary care institutions across Canada. A ninety-item survey examining ED services for adolescents was developed, piloted, and completed by 11 programs across Canada. Information pertaining to program characteristics and components, governance, staffing, referrals, assessments, therapeutic modalities in place, nutritional practices, and treatment protocols were collected. The results highlight the diversity of programming available but also the lack of a unified approach to intensive eating disorder treatment in youth. This report provides important baseline data that offers a framework that programs can use to come together to establish assessment and treatment protocols as well as a process for outcome evaluation. Continued collaboration will be essential moving forward to ensure Canadian youth, regardless of geographic location, receive the necessary treatment required to attain and sustain recovery.Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry = Journal de l'Academie canadienne de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent 11/2013; 22(4):310-6.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A number of studies have documented a phenomenon whereby individuals self-identify as vegetarians but then simultaneously acknowledge that they eat red meat, chicken, and/or fish. Despite being a consistent and fairly robust effect, there has been little attempt to explain these semi-vegetarians, why they would define themselves in a category whose membership criteria they violate, and ways they might differ from strict vegetarians. The present research highlights possible reasons for the discrepancy and focuses on several dimensions that may demarcate semi-from strict vegetarians: belief in human-animal similarity and liking of and disgust toward meat. Survey results indicated that semi-vegetarians (n=57) were less likely to dislike meat and to find meat disgusting than were strict vegetarians (n=157), even accounting for diet motives. There were no differences between the groups in their beliefs about human-animal similarity although semi-vegetarians who consumed a wider range of animal products perceived marginally less human-animal similarity than those who consumed only fish. The results suggest that semi-vegetarians are distinct from strict vegetarians primarily in their evaluation of and disgust toward meat, likely as a cause or consequence of their occasional consumption of animal flesh.Appetite 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2013.10.002 · 2.52 Impact Factor