CD21 B cell populations are altered following subcutaneous scrapie inoculation in sheep.
ABSTRACT In order to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of scrapie in sheep an experimental model was developed to characterise immune system cells in the minutes following inoculation with scrapie-brain homogenate. Four 1-year-old susceptible (ARQ/ARQ) sheep were inoculated via the subcutaneous route at four different peripheral lymph node (LNs) drainage sites, at specific time points, prior to euthanasia of the sheep. The LNs were removed post-mortem at 30, 90, 180 and 300min after inoculation. Flow cytometric triple-labelling was carried out on the LN cells and indicated that inoculation of scrapie-brain homogenate adjacent to a lymph node may delay or even inhibit the number of host CD21(+) B cells expressed within the first 5h. Immunohistochemistry was used to attempt detection of the abnormal form of prion protein (PrP(sc)) in draining LNs adjacent to inoculation sites, with negative results at those time points.
Article: Scrapie affects the maturation cycle and immune complex trapping by follicular dendritic cells in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are infectious neurological disorders of man and animals, characterised by abnormal disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) accumulations in the brain and lymphoreticular system (LRS). Prior to neuroinvasion, TSE agents often accumulate to high levels within the LRS, apparently without affecting immune function. However, our analysis of scrapie-affected sheep shows that PrP(d) accumulations within the LRS are associated with morphological changes to follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and tingible body macrophages (TBMs). Here we examined FDCs and TBMs in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of scrapie-affected mice by light and electron microscopy. In MLNs from uninfected mice, FDCs could be morphologically categorised into immature, mature and regressing forms. However, in scrapie-affected MLNs this maturation cycle was adversely affected. FDCs characteristically trap and retain immune complexes on their surfaces, which they display to B-lymphocytes. In scrapie-affected MLNs, some FDCs were found where areas of normal and abnormal immune complex retention occurred side by side. The latter co-localised with PrP(d) plasmalemmal accumulations. Our data suggest this previously unrecognised morphology represents the initial stage of an abnormal FDC maturation cycle. Alterations to the FDCs included PrP(d) accumulation, abnormal cell membrane ubiquitin and excess immunoglobulin accumulation. Regressing FDCs, in contrast, appeared to lose their membrane-attached PrP(d). Together, these data suggest that TSE infection adversely affects the maturation and regression cycle of FDCs, and that PrP(d) accumulation is causally linked to the abnormal pathology observed. We therefore support the hypothesis that TSEs cause an abnormality in immune function.PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(12):e8186. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Exosome-producing follicle associated epithelium is not involved in uptake of PrPd from the gut of sheep (Ovis aries): an ultrastructural study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In natural or experimental oral scrapie infection of sheep, disease associated prion protein (PrP(d)) often first accumulates in Peyer's patch (PP) follicles. The route by which infectivity reaches the follicles is unknown, however, intestinal epithelial cells may participate in intestinal antigenic presentation by delivering exosomes as vehicles of luminal antigens. In a previous study using an intestinal loop model, following inoculation of scrapie brain homogenate, inoculum associated PrP(d) was detected by light microscopy shortly (15 minutes to 3.5 hours) after inoculation in the villous lacteals and sub-mucosal lymphatics. No PrP(d) was located within the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE), sub-FAE domes or the PP follicles. To evaluate this gut loop model and the transportation routes in more detail, we used electron microscopy (EM) to study intestinal tissues exposed to scrapie or control homogenates for 15 minutes to 10 days. In addition, immuno-EM was used to investigate whether exosomes produced in the FAE may possess small amounts of PrP(d) that were not detectable by light microscopy. This study showed that the integrity of the intestinal epithelium was sustained in the intestinal loop model. Despite prominent transcytotic activity and exosome release from the FAE of the ileal PP in sheep, these structures were not associated with transportation of PrP(d) across the mucosa. The study did not determine how infectivity reaches the follicles of PPs. The possibility that the infectious agent is transported across the FAE remains a possibility if it occurs in a form that is undetectable by the methods used in this study. Infectivity may also be transported via lymph to the blood and further to all other lymphoid tissues including the PP follicles, but the early presence of PrP(d) in the PP follicles during scrapie infection argues against such a mechanism.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22180. · 4.09 Impact Factor