Vitamin C enters mouse T cells as dehydroascorbic acid in vitro and does not recapitulate in vivo vitamin C effects.
ABSTRACT Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient, which has been implicated in various biological processes, including immune response. In fact, in vivo administration of vitamin C modulates T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which mouse T cells take up vitamin C, and whether this uptake directly affected T cell functions. T cells internalized more vitamin C when they were activated, due to enhanced glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and GLUT-3 expression that persisted up to 48 h after activation. Blocking oxidation of ascorbic acid (the reduced form of vitamin C) in the culture medium with 1,4-dithio-threitol (DTT) almost completely inhibited the enhanced vitamin C uptake. The presence of vitamin C at low concentrations during in vitro T cell activation did not affect proliferation or cytokine secretion (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, or IL-4) in response to PMA/ionomycin. In contrast, high concentrations (0.25-0.5 mM) of vitamin C lowered cell viability, reduced thymidine uptake, and decreased cytokine secretion. In conclusion, activated T cells upregulated GLUT-1 and -3 to increase vitamin C uptake. They took up vitamin C mostly in its oxidized form, rarely in its reduced form. Application of vitamin C to T cells in vitro did not recapitulate previously reported in vivo responses to vitamin C, suggesting that in vivo, vitamin C modulates T cells indirectly through other components of the microenvironment.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin C, one of essential micronutrients, has been reported to modulate the humoral immune responses in some mammals. We investigated whether vitamin C might modulate this response in mice by directly affecting B cells. Splenic B cells were isolated and activated by CD40- and B cell receptor-ligation in vitro. The cells were cultured with a pretreatment of vitamin C from 0 to 1 mM of concentrations. Vitamin C slightly increased apoptosis of B cells dose-dependently and behaved as an antioxidant. We found that in vivo administration of vitamin C by intraperitoneal injection affected isotype switching as previously reported: the titer of antigen-specific IgG1 antibody was decreased, while that of IgG2a was unaffected. Somewhat different from those observed in vivo, in vitro exposure to vitamin C slightly decreased isotype switching to IgG1 and increased isotype switching to IgG2a. Pretreatment with vitamin C in the safe range did not affect either proliferation of cultured B cells or the expression of CD80 and CD86 in those cells. Taken together, in vivo results suggest that vitamin C acts to modulate isotype switching in the mouse. However, because of our in vitro results, we suggest that the modulation exerted by vitamin C in vivo is by indirectly affecting B cells, perhaps by directly influencing other immune cells such as dendritic cells.Anatomy & cell biology 03/2010; 43(1):25-35. DOI:10.5115/acb.2010.43.1.25
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin C has been reported to shift immune responses toward Th1. In this study, we evaluated whether this effect was by way of dendritic cells. Murine dendritic cells (DCs) were prepared from bone marrow precursors. DCs treated with vitamin C secreted an increased amount of IL-12p70 after activation with LPS. These cells rendered naïve T cells to secrete more Th1 cytokine, IFN-γ, and less Th2-cytokine, IL-5 in the culture supernatants. Vitamin C-treatment also increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 in DCs. p38 inhibitor in culture media suppressed the effect of vitamin C to elevate IL-12p70 secretion. In contrast, ERK inhibitor elevated IL-12p70 secretion. In summary, vitamin C taken up into DCs increased IL-12p70 secretion of these cells by modulating the activation of signal molecules, and thus shifted immune responses toward Th1. These data provide us a new insight on the role of vitamin C in modulating immune responses.Cellular Immunology 10/2010; 266(2):192-9. DOI:10.1016/j.cellimm.2010.10.005 · 1.87 Impact Factor
- European Urology Supplements 03/2011; 10(2):150-150. DOI:10.1016/S1569-9056(11)60429-6 · 3.37 Impact Factor