Does preoperative atrial fibrillation increase the risk for mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass grafting?
ABSTRACT Preoperative atrial fibrillation has been associated with less favorable outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. However, it was never investigated in a large cohort of patients using a national database. This study aims to (1) identify the effect of atrial fibrillation on operative mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and (2) identify the potential effect of atrial fibrillation on patients with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (<or=40%).
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was used for patients with coronary artery disease undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 281,567). The association between atrial fibrillation and outcomes was estimated within 3 categories of low (ejection fraction, <40%), moderate (ejection fraction, 40%-55%), or normal (ejection fraction, >55%) systolic function.
Patients with atrial fibrillation were found to be older and have a higher incidence of comorbidities. A higher incidence of all major complications and mortality after surgical intervention was documented. An interaction between atrial fibrillation and an ejection fraction of greater than 40% for mortality, stroke, prolonged ventilation, and prolonged length of stay was identified.
Our findings suggest that preoperative atrial fibrillation is associated with an increased risk for perioperative mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The negative effect of atrial fibrillation might be more significant in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with an ejection fraction of greater than 40%. Both the EuroSCORE and, until recently, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk calculator do not include atrial fibrillation as a potential risk modifier; however, based on this study, it should be identified as a variable to be investigated and incorporated into future risk calculators.
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ABSTRACT: We described a novel modified bipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation for preoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) combined with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) for patients with AF and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of this novel procedure and to determine whether it can eliminate AF for CAD patients. From January 2007 to June 2013, 45 patients (26 male patients) with AF (9 paroxysmal, 17 persistent, and 19 long-standing persistent) and CAD underwent the novel modified bipolar RF ablation combined with OPCABG in our department. After median sternotomy, the modified bipolar RF ablation and OPCABG were performed on beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass. Pulmonary vein isolation and left atrium ablation were achieved using a bipolar RF champ. Mitral annular lesion and ganglionic plexus were ablated with a bipolar RF pen. The left atrial appendage was excluded using a surgical stapler. 24 h holter monitoring and echocardiography were performed at discharge and 3, 6, 12 months postoperatively as well as every year thereafter. The modified bipolar RF ablation and OPCABG were performed successfully in all patients. Mean AF ablation time was 33.6 ± 4.2 min, and mean OPCABG time was 87.6 ± 13.3 min. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 12.6 ± 5.5 days. The maintenance of sinus rhythm was 95.6 % (43/45) at discharge. There was no early death and permanent pacemaker implantation in perioperation. At a mean follow-up of 29.8 ± 10.2 months, 38 of 45 (84.4 %) patients were in sinus rhythm. Follow-up TTE at 6 months postoperatively showed that left atrial diameter was significantly reduced and left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly increased. The novel modified bipolar RF ablation procedure was safe, feasible and effective. It may be useful in selecting the best ablation approaches for patients with AF and CAD.Heart and Vessels 05/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim. This study was planned to compare the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients on warfarin treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of 121 patients who underwent isolated CABG and 301 patients who underwent PCI. Results. PCI patients were older (mean age, 72.9 versus 69.8 years) and more often had prior cardiac surgery (15.9% versus 1.7%) and acute coronary syndrome (53.8% versus 21.5%). CABG patients more often had two- and three-vessel disease (95.0% versus 60.2%) and left main stenosis (32.2% versus 7.0%). The 30-day outcome was similar after PCI and CABG. At 3 years, PCI was associated with lower overall survival (72.0% versus 86.4%, P = 0.006), freedom from repeat revascularization (85.3% versus 98.2%, P < 0.001), freedom from myocardial infarction (83.4% versus 93.8%, P = 0.008), and freedom from major cardiovascular events (57.4% versus 78.9%, P < 0.001). Propensity score adjusted analysis showed that PCI was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (P = 0.016, RR 2.166, CI 1.155-4.060), myocardial infarction (P = 0.017, RR 3.161, 95% CI 1.227-8.144), repeat revascularization (P = 0.001, RR 13.152, 95% CI 2.799-61.793), and major cardiac and cerebrovascular complications (P = 0.001, RR 2.347, 95% CI 1.408-3.914). There was no difference in terms of stroke and bleeding episodes at any time point. Conclusion. In clinical practice, PCI is the preferred revascularization strategy in these frail patients. Patients selected for CABG have a relatively low operative risk and better mid-term outcome in spite of warfarin treatment. The poor prognosis after PCI may mainly reflect frequent co-morbidities in this patient group.Annals of Medicine 05/2014; · 4.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the commonest cardiac arrhythmia, becoming increasingly prevalent as the population ages. There is conflicting information around whether AF is associated with adverse outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR) from the few studies that have investigated this. We compared the characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing AVR with their history of AF. Isolated AVR patients at Auckland City Hospital 2005-2012 were divided into those with and without preoperative AF for comparative analyses. Of 620 consecutive patients, 19.2% (119) had permanent or paroxysmal AF preoperatively. Patients with AF were significantly older (70.5 vs 63.4 years, P < 0.001) and were more likely to be New Zealand European (82.4 vs 68.1%, P = 0.004). They also had higher prevalence of NYHA class III-IV (55.4 vs 37.4%, P = 0.004), inpatient operation (62.1 vs 48.3%, P = 0.008), history of stroke (10.9 vs 5.0%, P = 0.031), lower creatinine clearance (73 vs 82, P = 0.001) and higher EuroSCORE II (5.2 vs 3.4%, P < 0.001). Operative mortality (6.7 vs 2.0%, P = 0.012) and composite morbidity (27.7 vs 16.5%, P = 0.006) were also higher in patients with AF. After adjusting for significant variables, preoperative AF remained an independent predictor of operative mortality with an odds ratio of 3.44 (95% confidence interval 1.29-9.13), composite morbidity of 1.79 (1.05-3.04) and a mortality during follow-up hazards ratio of 2.36 (1.44-3.87). AF was associated with several cardiovascular and cardiac surgery risk factors, but remained independently associated with short- and long-term mortality. AF should be incorporated into cardiac surgery risk models and surgical AF ablation may be considered with AVR.Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 05/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor