Cardiometabolic Abnormalities in Current National Football League Players
ABSTRACT Media reports suggested an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and premature death in former National Football League (NFL) players. The prevalence of cardiometabolic syndrome was determined in current active NFL players. The presence of cardiometabolic syndrome was defined as > or =3 of (1) blood pressure > or =130/85 mm Hg, (2) fasting glucose > or =100 mg/dl, (3) triglycerides > or =150 mg/dl, (4) waist circumference > or =100 cm, and (5) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol < or =40 mg/dl. Sixty-nine of 91 players (76%) from 1 NFL team were studied before the 2008 preseason training camp. Cardiometabolic syndrome markers, body mass index (BMI), waist-height ratio, and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were compared between 69 players and an age- and gender-matched reference population from NHANES (1999 to 2002) and by player position of linemen versus nonlinemen. Blood pressure > or =130/85 mm Hg, glucose > or =100 mg/dl, and BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) were significantly more prevalent in the 69 players than the NHANES cohort (28% vs 17%, p = 0.032; 19% vs 7%, p = 0.002; and 51% vs 21%, p <0.001, respectively), although cardiometabolic syndrome prevalence was similar in both groups. However, cardiometabolic syndrome prevalence, BMI > or =30 kg/m(2), and waist-height ratio >0.5 were significantly more common in the linemen versus the nonlinemen subgroup (22% vs 0%, p = 0.004; 100% vs 32%, p <0.001, and 95% vs 36%, p <0.001 respectively). In conclusion, cardiometabolic syndrome and its individual components were noted in current NFL players, particularly linemen.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Canadian amateur football players. Methods: University football players from Saskatchewan were invited to participate in this study. Each subject underwent screening for blood pressure using a BpTRU monitor, and serum cholesterol and fasting blood glucose using a Cholestech LDX analyzer. Waist circumference was recorded and body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results were compared between linemen and non-linemen using independent sample t-tests for continuous data and chi-square for dichotomous variables. Results: Out of 39 players who consented to participate, 14% of linemen (3/21) and no non-linemen satisfied metabolic syndrome criteria. Compared to non-linemen, linemen had a higher waist circumference (108.0 vs. 82.9 cm; p<0.001), higher total body fat composition (26.4% vs. 11.2%; p<0.001), lower mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.93, vs. 1.12 mmol/L; p=0.021) and higher fasting blood glucose (5.22 vs. 4.77 mmol/L; p<0.001). Conclusion: Despite their young age and participation in an elite-level athletic program, many collegiate-level football linemen had features of metabolic syndrome. Although our study focused on a single team, we suspect these trends may be consistent across the country.Canadian Journal of Diabetes 12/2011; 35(5):497-502. DOI:10.1016/S1499-2671(11)80005-5 · 0.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The increased physical demands of professional athletes predispose this patient population to a unique set of injuries typically not seen in the general population. This systematic literature review investigates the nature of injury reporting (both orthopedic and nonorthopedic conditions) in the medical literature of professional athletes in the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Hockey League (NHL). Rigorous reporting of sports injuries helps clinicians better understand disease mechanisms relevant to specific sports.Hypothesis:The nature of injury reporting will differ within each professional sport and reflect the anatomic emphasis of each sport.Methods:An electronic literature search of all publications addressing injuries and medical conditions among professional athletes in the NFL, MLB, NBA, and NHL was conducted using the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Embase databases through January 2013. Retrieved publications were categorized by journal type, medical type, and area of focus.Results:A total of 536 publications met all inclusion criteria. There were a higher number of articles regarding the NFL (n = 211) and MLB (n = 216) when compared with the NBA (n = 34) or NHL (n = 75). The NFL had significantly more articles addressing nonorthopedic injuries/medical issues than were found with the MLB, NBA, or NHL (109 vs 75, 14, 41, respectively). Both the NFL (33 of 109, 30%) and NHL (6 of 41, 15%) had a relatively high percentage of articles regarding concussions/neurology, and MLB had a relatively high percentage of articles dedicated to vascular medicine (13 of 65, 20%). The proportion of publications dedicated to the knee/lower leg were highest in the NFL (29 of 102, 28%) and NBA (9 of 20, 45%), those dedicated to the shoulder/elbow were highest in MLB (113 of 151, 75%), and those dedicated to the hip/pelvis were highest in the NHL (16 of 34, 47%).Conclusions:The number and type of publications vary among the 4 professional sports leagues, and generally reflect the nature of the sport being played.The Physician and sportsmedicine 05/2014; 42(2):154-62. DOI:10.3810/psm.2014.05.2067 · 1.49 Impact Factor
Canadian Journal of Diabetes 12/2011; 35(5):486-7. DOI:10.1016/S1499-2671(11)80002-X · 0.46 Impact Factor