Application of electromagnetic technology to neuronavigation: A revolution in image-guided neurosurgery: Technical note

Department of Neurosurgery, The Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Lower Lane Fazakerley
Journal of Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.74). 04/2009; 111(6):1179-84. DOI: 10.3171/2008.12.JNS08628
Source: PubMed


The authors investigated the practicality of electromagnetic neuronavigation in routine clinical use, and determined the applications for which it is at the advantage compared with other systems.
A magnetic field is generated encompassing the surgical volume. Devices containing miniaturized coils can be located within the field. The authors report on their experience in 150 cases performed with this technology.
Electromagnetic neuronavigation was performed in 44 endoscopies, 42 ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertions for slit ventricles, 21 routine shunt insertions, 6 complex shunt insertions, 14 external ventricular drain placements for traumatic brain injury, 5 awake craniotomies, 5 Ommaya reservoir placements, and for 13 other indications. Satisfactory positioning of ventricular catheters was achieved in all cases. No particular changes to the operating theater set-up were required, and no significant interference from ferromagnetic instruments was experienced. Neurophysiological monitoring was not affected, nor did it affect electromagnetic guidance.
Neuronavigation enables safe, accurate surgery, and may ultimately reduce complications and improve outcome. Electromagnetic technology allows frameless, pinless, image-guided surgery, and can be used in all procedures for which neuronavigation is appropriate. This technology was found to be particularly advantageous compared with other technologies in cases in which freedom of head movement was helpful. Electromagnetic neuronavigation was therefore well suited to CSF diversion procedures, awake craniotomies, and cases in which rigid head fixation was undesirable, such as in neonates. This technology extends the application of neuronavigation to routine shunt placement and ventricular catheter placement in patients with traumatic brain injury.

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    • "A way to solve this problem is the acquisition of intra-operative neuroimaging scans such as CT or MRI, or real-time imaging with ultrasonography or fluoroscopy [7]. As a result of these neuronavigation techniques described, one can expect a marked improvement in surgical outcomes, offering two essential parameters of surgical excellence: efficacy and safety [8]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), efficacy can be defined as the benefit or usefulness to an individual, provided by a service, treatment regimen, medication, prevention or control measures, either advocated or applied [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of surgery with neuronavigation compared to conventional neurosurgical treatment of epilepsy in terms of safety and seizure outcomes and to assess the quality of the evidence base of neuronavigation in this clinical context. Method: Systematic review using the electronic databases of Cochrane, CRD, PubMed, Embase, SciELO and LILACS in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The [MeSH] terms included "epilepsy" and "neuronavigation". Eligibility criteria: Studies assessing surgery with neuronavigation for the surgical treatment of epilepsy or brain injuries associated with epileptic seizures. Results: We identified 28 original articles. All articles yielded scientific evidence of low quality. Outcome data presented in the articles identified was heterogeneous and did not amount to compelling evidence that epilepsy surgery with neuronavigation produces higher rates of seizure control, a reduced need for reoperations, or lower rates of complications or postoperative neurological deficits. Conclusion: We were unable to find any publications providing convincing evidence that neuronavigation improves outcomes of epilepsy surgery. Whilst this does not mean that neuronavigation cannot improve neurosurgical outcomes in this clinical setting, well-designed research studies evaluating the role of neuronavigation are urgently needed.
    Seizure 09/2015; 31:99-107. DOI:10.1016/j.seizure.2015.07.010 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    • "The neuronavigation had proven to be a great device for the surgical treatment of variable neurosurgical problems such as tumor resection or biopsy, the surgery for epilepsy, vascular neurosurgery, the localization of functional and eloquent area, spinal neurosurgery and the operation for hydrocephalus9,13,16,17). Because the device helps the identification of pathologic condition and intraoperative anatomy distorted by pathologic anatomic conditions, the application of this device makes the operations more exact, safe, fast and less invasive due to finding the way and avoiding collision16,17). "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroendoscopy is applied to various intracranial pathologic conditions. But this technique needs informations for the anatomy, critically. Neuronavigation makes the operation more safe, exact and lesser invasive procedures. But classical neuronavigation systems with rigid pinning fixations were difficult to apply to pediatric populations because of their thin and immature skull. Electromagnetic neuronavigation has used in the very young patients because it does not need rigid pinning fixations. The usefulness of electromagnetic neuronavigation is described through our experiences of neuroendoscopy for pediatric groups and reviews for several literatures. Between January 2007 and July 2011, nine pediatric patients were managed with endoscopic surgery using electromagnetic neuronavigation (AxiEM, Medtronics, USA). The patients were 4.0 years of mean age (4 months-12 years) and consisted of 8 boys and 1 girl. Totally, 11 endoscopic procedures were performed. The cases involving surgical outcomes were reviewed. The goal of surgery was achieved successfully at the time of surgery, as confirmed by postoperative imaging. In 2 patients, each patient underwent re-operations due to the aggravation of the previous lesion. And one had transient mild third nerve palsy due to intraoperative manipulation and the others had no surgery related complication. By using electromagnetic neuronavigation, neuroendoscopy was found to be a safe and effective technique. In conclusion, electromagnetic neuronavigation is a useful adjunct to neuroendoscopy in very young pediatric patients and an alternative to classical optical neuronavigation.
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 03/2013; 53(3):161-6. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2013.53.3.161 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Image-guided neuroendoscopy is being increasingly used in an attempt to reduce the morbidity associated with surgery and to make navigation easier. It has a particularly useful application in the pediatric population for the treatment of conditions such as complex hydrocephalus and arachnoid cysts. However, its use has been limited by the requirement for rigid head fixation, which may be difficult in infants because of the immaturity of the skull. In addition there can be line-of-sight issues, which can be a problem with optical-based systems. Electromagnetic navigation has eliminated the requirement for head immobilization, and its successful use in the infant population has been reported. The authors present their series to date, define its role, and discuss its advantages over other forms of image-guided navigation. The authors used the electromagnetic StealthStation and software (Medtronic) for neuronavigation. A dynamic reference frame was attached to the head using an adhesive dressing. The patient was positioned without rigid fixation and was registered using a specially designed stylet. Navigation was through a stylet, which could be placed within the endoscope. Direct advantages were no rigid head fixation, the ability to maneuver the endoscope without the requirement for a bulky optical attachment, and no loss of navigation caused by user obstruction of reflective fiducial markers. The authors performed a total of 28 procedures in 23 patients. There were 9 arachnoid cyst marsupializations, 4 multiple fenestrations for multiloculated hydrocephalus, 4 aqueductal stenting procedures for encysted fourth ventricles, 5 endoscopic third ventriculostomies, 3 septum pellucidotomies, 2 tumor biopsies, and 1 tumor cyst decompression. Electromagnetic navigation was successful in all cases. Two complications were reported: a subdural collection, requiring bur hole drainage after a successful fenestration of the arachnoid cyst and failed treatment of complex hydrocephalus requiring subsequent placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The electromagnetic technology provides reliable image-guided endoscopy. It has several advantages over alternative forms of stereotaxy, and the ability to use it without the need for rigid head fixation makes it eminently suitable for the pediatric population. Its use and application in the treatment of a variety of different conditions has been demonstrated successfully.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 05/2009; 3(4):325-30. DOI:10.3171/2008.12.PEDS0888 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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