Summary health statistics for U.S. children: National Health Interview Survey, 2007.
ABSTRACT This report presents both age-adjusted and unadjusted statistics from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) on selected health measures for children under 18 years of age, classified by sex, age, race, Hispanic origin, family structure, parent education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, place of residence, region, and current health status. The topics covered are asthma, allergies, learning disability, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), prescription medication use, respondent-assessed health status, school-loss days, usual place of health care, time since last contact with a health care professional, selected measures of health care access and utilization, and dental care.
The NHIS is a multistage probability sample survey conducted annually by interviewers of the U.S. Census Bureau for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics and is representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Data are collected for all family members during face-to-face interviews with adults present at the time of interview. Additional information about children is collected for one randomly selected child per family in face-to-face interviews with an adult proxy respondent familiar with the child's health.
In 2007, most U.S. children under 18 years of age had excellent or very good health (83%). However, 9% of children had no health insurance coverage, and 6% of children had no usual place of health care. Thirteen percent of children had ever been diagnosed with asthma. An estimated 8% of children 3-17 years of age had a learning disability, and an estimated 7% of children had ADHD.
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ABSTRACT: Psychosocial stressors like intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure are associated with increased risk of childhood asthma. Longitudinal studies have not investigated the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity (and associated alterations in cortisol release) in the child IPV exposure-asthma association. We sought to investigate this association, and to assess whether this relationship differs by child HPA reactivity. This secondary analysis used longitudinal cohort data from the Family Life Project. Participants included 1,292 low-income children and mothers; maternal interview and child biomarker data, including maternal report of IPV and child asthma, and child salivary cortisol obtained with validated stress reactivity paradigms, were collected when the child was 7, 15, 24, 35, and 48 months. Using structural equation modeling, maternal IPV when the child was 7 months of age predicted subsequent reports of childhood asthma (B=0.18, p=.002). This association differed according to the child's HPA reactivity status, with IPV exposed children who were HPA reactors at 7 and 15 months of age - defined as a ≥10% increase in cortisol level twenty minutes post peak arousal during the challenge tasks and a raw increase of at least .02μg/dl - being significantly at risk for asthma (7 months: B=0.17, p=.02; 15 months: B=0.17, p=.02). Our findings provide support that children who are physiologically reactive are the most vulnerable to adverse health outcomes when faced with environmental stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Child Abuse & Neglect 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.11.003 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this paper we review the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental health (DSM), its scientific bases and utility. The concepts of "normality," "pathology," and boundaries between them are critically reviewed. We further use the concepts of mindfulness and mindlessness, and evidence from cognitive and social sciences to investigate the DSM clinical and social impact and we argue against its assigned overpower. We recommend including alternative perspectives to the DSM, such as mindfulness and positive psychology. We also argue for including mindfulness training in psychiatric residency and clinical psychology programs.Frontiers in Psychology 06/2014; 5:602. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00602 · 2.80 Impact Factor