Centrosome overduplication, chromosomal instability, and human papillomavirus oncoproteins.
ABSTRACT Centrosome aberrations are a frequent finding in human tumors. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms leading to disruption of centrosome duplication control and the functional consequences of aberrant centrosome numbers. The high-risk human papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncoproteins are overexpressed in HPV-associated malignancies of the anogenital tract and have been instrumental in delineating different pathways of centrosome amplification. Whereas the E6 oncoprotein was found to provoke centrosome accumulation, the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein triggers a genuine disruption of the centrosome duplication cycle. Importantly, the E7 oncoprotein can rapidly cause centrosome overduplication through a pathway that involves the concurrent formation of multiple daughters at single maternal centrioles (centriole flowers). Several lines of evidence suggest that cyclin E/CDK2 complexes and Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) are crucial players in this process. These findings underscore that the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein is a unique tool to dissect normal and abnormal centriole biogenesis and the underlying molecular circuitry.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many mutation events in microsatellite DNA sequences were traced to the first embryonic divisions. It was not known what makes the first replication cycles of embryonic DNA different from subsequent replication cycles. Here we demonstrate that an unusual replication mode is involved in the first cycle of replication of DNA introduced in mammalian cells. This alternative replication starts at random positions, and occurs before the chromatin is fully assembled. It is detected in various cell lines and primary cells. The presence of single-stranded regions increases the efficiency of this alternative replication mode. The alternative replication cannot progress through the A/T-rich FRA16B fragile site, while the regular replication mode is not affected by it. A/T-rich microsatellites are associated with the majority of chromosomal breakpoints in cancer. We suggest that the alternative replication mode may be initiated at the regions with immature chromatin structure in embryonic and cancer cells resulting in increased genomic instability. This work demonstrates, for the first time, differences in the replication progression during the first and subsequent replication cycles in mammalian cells.Nucleic Acids Research 11/2010; 39(6):2103-15. · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: The HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein induces centriole multiplication through deregulation of Polo-like kinase 4 expression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) such as HPV-16 is intimately associated with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the anogenital tract and a subset of oropharyngeal carcinomas. Such lesions, including pre-invasive precursors, frequently show multipolar mitoses and aneuploidy. The high-risk HPV-16-encoded E7 oncoprotein has been shown to rapidly induce centrosome abnormalities thereby causing the formation of supernumerary mitotic spindle poles and increasing the risk for chromosome missegregation. HPV-16 E7 has been found to rapidly induce centriole overduplication, in part, through the simultaneous formation of more than one daughter centriole at single maternal centrioles (centriole multiplication). The precise molecular mechanism that underlies HPV-16 E7-induced centriole multiplication, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we show that human keratinocytes engineered to stably express the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein exhibit aberrant Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) protein expression at maternal centrioles. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT-PCR) analysis of these cells revealed an increase of PLK4 mRNA levels compared to control cells. Importantly, the ability of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein to induce centriole multiplication was found to correlate with its ability to activate the PLK4 promoter and to up-regulate PLK4 mRNA. These results highlight the critical role of PLK4 transcriptional deregulation in centriole multiplication in HPV-16 E7-expressing cells. Our findings encourage further experiments to test transcriptional inhibitors or small molecules targeting PLK4 to prevent centriole abnormalities, mitotic infidelity and malignant progression in HPV-associated neoplasms and other tumors in which PLK4 regulation is disrupted.Molecular Cancer 01/2011; 10:61. · 3.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytoskeleton defines the shape and structural organization of the cell. Its elements participate in cell motility, intracellular transport and chromosome movement during mitosis. Papillomaviruses (PV) are strictly epitheliotropic and induce self-limiting benign tumors of skin and mucosa, which may progress to malignancy. Like many other viruses, PV use the host cytoskeletal components for several steps during their life cycle. Prior to internalization, PV particles are transported along filopodia to the cell body. Following internalization, retrograde transport along microtubules via the dynein motor protein complex is observed. In addition, viral minichromosomes depend on the host cell machinery for partitioning of viral genomes during mitosis, which may be affected by oncoproteins E6 and E7 of high-risk human PV types. This mini-review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of papillomavirus' interactions with the host cell cytoskeletal elements.Viruses 03/2011; 3(3):260-71. · 1.50 Impact Factor