Article

Loss of Metal Ions, Disulfide Reduction and Mutations Related to Familial ALS Promote Formation of Amyloid-Like Aggregates from Superoxide Dismutase

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 02/2009; 4(3):e5004. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mutations in the gene encoding Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are one of the causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Fibrillar inclusions containing SOD1 and SOD1 inclusions that bind the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin S have been found in neurons of transgenic mice expressing mutant SOD1. Therefore, the formation of amyloid fibrils from human SOD1 was investigated. When agitated at acidic pH in the presence of low concentrations of guanidine or acetonitrile, metalated SOD1 formed fibrillar material which bound both thioflavin T and Congo red and had circular dichroism and infrared spectra characteristic of amyloid. While metalated SOD1 did not form amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH, either removing metals from SOD1 with its intramolecular disulfide bond intact or reducing the intramolecular disulfide bond of metalated SOD1 was sufficient to promote formation of these aggregates. SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates both with and without intermolecular disulfide bonds, depending on the incubation conditions, and a mutant SOD1 lacking free sulfhydryl groups (AS-SOD1) formed amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH under reducing conditions. ALS mutations enhanced the ability of disulfide-reduced SOD1 to form amyloid-like aggregates, and apo-AS-SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates at pH 7 only when an ALS mutation was also present. These results indicate that some mutations related to ALS promote formation of amyloid-like aggregates by facilitating the loss of metals and/or by making the intramolecular disulfide bond more susceptible to reduction, thus allowing the conversion of SOD1 to a form that aggregates to form resembling amyloid. Furthermore, the occurrence of amyloid-like aggregates per se does not depend on forming intermolecular disulfide bonds, and multiple forms of such aggregates can be produced from SOD1.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
99 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The toxic property thus far shared by both ALS-linked SOD1 variants and wild-type SOD1 is an increased propensity to aggregation. However, whether SOD1 oligomers or aggregates are toxic to cells remains to be well defined. Moreover, how the toxic SOD1 species are removed from intra- and extra-cellular environments also needs to be further explored. The DNA binding has been shown to be capable of accelerating the aggregation of wild-type and oxidized SOD1 forms under acidic and neutral conditions. Here, we explore the binding of DNA and heparin, two types of essential life polyanions, to A4V, an ALS-linked SOD1 mutant, under acidic conditions, and its consequences. The polyanion binding alters the A4V conformation, neutralizes its local positive charges, and increases its local concentrations along the polyanion chain, which are sufficient to lead to acceleration of the pH-dependent A4V aggregation. The accelerated aggregation, which is ascribed to the polyanion binding-mediated removal or shortening of the lag phase in aggregation, contributes to the formation of amorphous A4V nanoparticles. The prolonged incubation with polyanions not only results in the complete conversion of likely soluble toxic A4V oligomers into non- and low-toxic SDS-resistant aggregates, but also increases their stability. Although this is only an initial step toward reducing the toxicity of SOD1 mutants, the accelerating role of polyanions in protein aggregation might become one of the rapid pathways that remove toxic forms of SOD1 mutants from intra- and extra-cellular environments. © Proteins 2014;. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 12/2014; 82(12). DOI:10.1002/prot.24691 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) is a fatal neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive paralysis and motor neuron death. Although the pathological mechanisms that cause ALS remain unclear, accumulating evidence supports that ALS is a protein misfolding disorder. Mutations in Cu,Zn-SOD1 (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1) are a common cause of familial ALS. They have complex effects on different forms of SOD1, but generally destabilize the protein and enhance various modes of misfolding and aggregation. In addition, there is some evidence that destabilized covalently modified wild-type SOD1 may be involved in disease. Among the multitude of misfolded/aggregated species observed for SOD1, multiple species may impair various cellular components at different disease stages. Newly developed antibodies that recognize different structural features of SOD1 represent a powerful tool for further unravelling the roles of different SOD1 structures in disease. Evidence for similar cellular targets of misfolded/aggregated proteins, loss of cellular proteostasis and cell-cell transmission of aggregates point to common pathological mechanisms between ALS and other misfolding diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion diseases, as well as serpinopathies. The recent progress in understanding the molecular basis for these devastating diseases provides numerous avenues for developing urgently needed therapeutics.
    Essays in Biochemistry 08/2014; 56(1):149-65. DOI:10.1042/bse0560149 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene are related to familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Here we exploit in-cell NMR to characterize the protein folding and maturation of a series of fALS-linked SOD1 mutants in human cells and to obtain insight into their behaviour in the cellular context, at the molecular level. The effect of various mutations on SOD1 maturation are investigated by changing the availability of metal ions in the cells, and by coexpressing the copper chaperone for SOD1, hCCS. We observe for most of the mutants the occurrence of an unstructured SOD1 species, unable to bind zinc. This species may be a common precursor of potentially toxic oligomeric species, that are associated with fALS. Coexpression of hCCS in the presence of copper restores the correct maturation of the SOD1 mutants and prevents the formation of the unstructured species, confirming that hCCS also acts as a molecular chaperone.
    Nature Communications 11/2014; 5:5502. DOI:10.1038/ncomms6502 · 10.74 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
35 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014