HIV-1 Tat protein-induced rapid and reversible decrease in [3H]dopamine uptake: dissociation of [3H]dopamine uptake and [3H]2beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (WIN 35,428) binding in rat striatal synaptosomes.
ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Tat protein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of both HIV-1-associated cognitive-motor disorder and drug abuse. Dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) function is strikingly altered in patients with HIV-1-associated dementia and a history of chronic drug abuse. This study is the first in vitro evaluation of potential mechanisms underlying the effects of Tat protein on DAT function. Rat striatal synaptosomes were incubated with recombinant Tat(1-86) protein, and [(3)H]DA uptake and the binding of [(3)H]2beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (WIN 35,428) and [(3)H]1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)-piperazine (GBR 12935) were determined. Tat decreased [(3)H]DA uptake, [(3)H]WIN 35,428 binding, and [(3)H]GBR 12935 binding in a time-dependent manner. The potency of Tat for inhibiting [(3)H]DA uptake (K(i) = 1.2 microM) was the same as that for inhibiting [(3)H]GBR 12935 binding but 3-fold less than that for inhibiting [(3)H]WIN 35,428 binding. Mutant Tat proteins did not alter [(3)H]DA uptake. Kinetic analysis of [(3)H]DA uptake revealed that Tat (1 or 10 microM) decreased the V(max) value and increased the K(m) value in a dose-dependent manner. The V(max) value, decreased by Tat (1 microM), returned to the control level after washout of Tat, indicating that the inhibitory effect of Tat on DA uptake was reversible. Saturation studies revealed that Tat decreased the B(max) value and increased the K(d) value of [(3)H]WIN 35,428 binding, whereas Tat decreased the B(max) value of [(3)H]GBR 12935 binding, without a change in the K(d) value. These findings provide new insight into understanding the pharmacological mechanisms of Tat-induced dysfunction of the DAT in the dopaminergic system in HIV-infected patients.
Article: Soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein exert anti-apoptotic actions via a selective ER-mediated mechanism in neurons following HIV-1 Tat(1-86) exposure.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HIV-1 viral protein Tat partially mediates the neural dysfunction and neuronal cell death associated with HIV-1 induced neurodegeneration and neurocognitive disorders. Soy isoflavones provide protection against various neurotoxic insults to maintain neuronal function and thus help preserve neurocognitive capacity. We demonstrate in primary cortical cell cultures that 17β-estradiol or isoflavones (genistein or daidzein) attenuate Tat(1-86)-induced expression of apoptotic proteins and subsequent cell death. Exposure of cultured neurons to the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 abolished the anti-apoptotic actions of isoflavones. Use of ERα or ERβ specific antagonists determined the involvement of both ER isoforms in genistein and daidzein inhibition of caspase activity; ERβ selectively mediated downregulation of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic protein Bax. The findings suggest soy isoflavones effectively diminished HIV-1 Tat-induced apoptotic signaling. Collectively, our results suggest that soy isoflavones represent an adjunctive therapeutic option with combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) to preserve neuronal functioning and sustain neurocognitive abilities of HIV-1 infected persons.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37540. · 4.09 Impact Factor